Clinical Trials /

Cladribine With Simultaneous or Delayed Rituximab to Treat Hairy Cell Leukemia

NCT00923013

Description:

Background: Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is highly responsive to but not curable by cladribine (CdA). HCL responds to rituximab, which is not yet standard therapy for HCL. Patients with the CD25-negative variant (HCLv) respond poorly to initial cladribine but do respond to rituximab in anecdotal reports. Deoxycytidine kinase phosphorylates cladribine to CdATP, which incorporates into DNA, leading to DNA strand breaks and inhibition of DNA synthesis. Rituximab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody which induces apoptosis and either complement or antibody dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC or CDC). Patients in complete remission (CR) to cladribine have minimal residual disease (MRD) by immunohistochemistry of the bone marrow biopsy (BMBx IHC), a risk for early relapse. Tests for HCL MRD in blood or marrow include flow cytometry (FACS) or PCR using consensus primers. The most sensitive HCL MRD test is real-time quantitative PCR using sequence-specific primers (RQ-PCR). In studies with limited follow-up, MRD detected by tests other than RQ-PCR can be eliminated by rituximab after cladribine in greater than 90 percent of patients, but MRD rates after cladribine alone are unknown. Simultaneous cladribine and rituximab might be superior or inferior to delaying rituximab until detection of MRD. Only 4 HCL-specific trials are listed on Cancer.gov: a phase II trial of cladribine followed 4 weeks later by 8 weekly doses of rituximab, and phase I-II trials of recombinant immunotoxins targeting CD22 (BL22, HA22) and CD25 (LMB-2). Objectives: Primary: To determine if HCL MRD differs at 6 months after cladribine with or without rituximab administered concurrently with cladribine. Secondary: - To compare cladribine plus rituximab vs cladribine alone in terms of 1) initial MRD-free survival and disease-free survival, and 2) response to delayed rituximab for relapse, to determine if early rituximab compromises later response. - To determine if MRD levels and tumor markers (soluble CD25 and CD22) after cladribine and/or rituximab correlate with response and clinical endpoints. - To determine, using MRD and tumor marker data, when BMBx can be avoided. - To compare response and MRD after the 1st and 2nd courses of cladribine. - To evaluate the effects of cladribine and rituximab on normal T- and B-cells. - To enhance the study of HCL biology by cloning, sequencing and characterizing monoclonal immunoglobulin rearrangements. Eligibility: HCL with 0-1 prior courses of cladribine and treatment indicated. Design: Cladribine 0.15 mg/Kg/day times 5 doses each by 2hr i.v. infusion (days 1-5) Rituximab 375 mg/m2/week times 8 weeks, randomized half to begin day 1, then repeat for all patients with blood-MRD relapse at least 6 months after cladribine. Also may repeat for those with blood-MRD relapse at least 6 months after delayed rituximab. MRD tests used for the primary objective will be limited to BMBx IHC, blood FACS or blood consensus PCR, all CLIA certified. Blood MRD relapse is defined as FACS positivity or low blood counts (ANC less than 1500/microl, Plt less than 100,000/microl, or Hgb less than 11). Stratification: 68 patients with 0 and 62 with 1 prior course of cladribine. Statistics: 80% power to discriminate rates of MRD of 5 vs 25%, or 10 vs 35% Non-randomized arm: 20 with HCLv will begin rituximab with cladribine. Accrual Ceiling: 152 patients (130 HCL, 2 extra HCL if needed, and 20 HCLv.)

Related Conditions:
  • Hairy Cell Leukemia
Recruiting Status:

Recruiting

Phase:

Phase 2

Trial Eligibility

Document

Title

  • Brief Title: Cladribine With Simultaneous or Delayed Rituximab to Treat Hairy Cell Leukemia
  • Official Title: Randomized Trial of Cladribine (CdA) With Simultaneous or Delayed Rituximab to Eliminate Hairy Cell Leukemia Minimal Residual Disease

Clinical Trial IDs

  • ORG STUDY ID: 090005
  • SECONDARY ID: 09-C-0005
  • NCT ID: NCT00923013
  • NCT ALIAS: NCT00781235

Conditions

  • Hairy Cell Leukemia

Interventions

DrugSynonymsArms
Cladribine1
Rituximab1

Purpose

Background: Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is highly responsive to but not curable by cladribine (CdA). HCL responds to rituximab, which is not yet standard therapy for HCL. Patients with the CD25-negative variant (HCLv) respond poorly to initial cladribine but do respond to rituximab in anecdotal reports. Deoxycytidine kinase phosphorylates cladribine to CdATP, which incorporates into DNA, leading to DNA strand breaks and inhibition of DNA synthesis. Rituximab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody which induces apoptosis and either complement or antibody dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC or CDC). Patients in complete remission (CR) to cladribine have minimal residual disease (MRD) by immunohistochemistry of the bone marrow biopsy (BMBx IHC), a risk for early relapse. Tests for HCL MRD in blood or marrow include flow cytometry (FACS) or PCR using consensus primers. The most sensitive HCL MRD test is real-time quantitative PCR using sequence-specific primers (RQ-PCR). In studies with limited follow-up, MRD detected by tests other than RQ-PCR can be eliminated by rituximab after cladribine in greater than 90 percent of patients, but MRD rates after cladribine alone are unknown. Simultaneous cladribine and rituximab might be superior or inferior to delaying rituximab until detection of MRD. Only 4 HCL-specific trials are listed on Cancer.gov: a phase II trial of cladribine followed 4 weeks later by 8 weekly doses of rituximab, and phase I-II trials of recombinant immunotoxins targeting CD22 (BL22, HA22) and CD25 (LMB-2). Objectives: Primary: To determine if HCL MRD differs at 6 months after cladribine with or without rituximab administered concurrently with cladribine. Secondary: - To compare cladribine plus rituximab vs cladribine alone in terms of 1) initial MRD-free survival and disease-free survival, and 2) response to delayed rituximab for relapse, to determine if early rituximab compromises later response. - To determine if MRD levels and tumor markers (soluble CD25 and CD22) after cladribine and/or rituximab correlate with response and clinical endpoints. - To determine, using MRD and tumor marker data, when BMBx can be avoided. - To compare response and MRD after the 1st and 2nd courses of cladribine. - To evaluate the effects of cladribine and rituximab on normal T- and B-cells. - To enhance the study of HCL biology by cloning, sequencing and characterizing monoclonal immunoglobulin rearrangements. Eligibility: HCL with 0-1 prior courses of cladribine and treatment indicated. Design: Cladribine 0.15 mg/Kg/day times 5 doses each by 2hr i.v. infusion (days 1-5) Rituximab 375 mg/m2/week times 8 weeks, randomized half to begin day 1, then repeat for all patients with blood-MRD relapse at least 6 months after cladribine. Also may repeat for those with blood-MRD relapse at least 6 months after delayed rituximab. MRD tests used for the primary objective will be limited to BMBx IHC, blood FACS or blood consensus PCR, all CLIA certified. Blood MRD relapse is defined as FACS positivity or low blood counts (ANC less than 1500/microl, Plt less than 100,000/microl, or Hgb less than 11). Stratification: 68 patients with 0 and 62 with 1 prior course of cladribine. Statistics: 80% power to discriminate rates of MRD of 5 vs 25%, or 10 vs 35% Non-randomized arm: 20 with HCLv will begin rituximab with cladribine. Accrual Ceiling: 152 patients (130 HCL, 2 extra HCL if needed, and 20 HCLv.)

Detailed Description

      Background:

      Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is highly responsive to but not curable by cladribine (CdA). HCL
      responds to rituximab, which is not yet standard therapy for HCL.

      Patients with the CD25-negative variant (HCLv) respond poorly to initial cladribine but do
      respond to rituximab in anecdotal reports.

      Purine analogs cladribine and pentostatin have similar efficacy for HCL, both inhibiting DNA
      synthesis selectively in HCL cells. Cladribine is effective after just 1 cycle. Rituximab is
      an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody which induces apoptosis and either complement or antibody
      dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC or CDC).

      Patients in complete remission (CR) to cladribine have minimal residual disease (MRD) by
      immunohistochemistry of the bone marrow biopsy (BMBx IHC), a risk for early relapse. Tests
      for HCL MRD in blood or marrow include flow cytometry (FACS) or PCR using consensus primers.
      The most sensitive HCL MRD test is real-time quantitative PCR using sequence-specific primers
      (RQ-PCR).

      In studies with limited follow-up, MRD detected by tests other than RQ-PCR can be eliminated
      by rituximab after cladribine in > 90% of patients, but MRD rates after purine analog alone
      are unknown. Simultaneous cladribine and rituximab might be superior or inferior to delaying
      rituximab until detection of MRD.

      Only 4 HCL-specific trials are listed on Cancer.gov: a phase II trial of cladribine followed
      4 weeks later by 8 weekly doses of rituximab, and phase I-II trials of recombinant
      immunotoxins targeting CD22 (BL22, HA22) and CD25 (LMB-2).

      Objective:

      To determine if HCL MRD differs at 6 months after cladribine with or without rituximab
      administered concurrently with cladribine.

      Eligibility:

      HCL with 0-1 prior courses of cladribine or pentostatin and treatment indicated.

      Design:

      Cladribine 0.15 mg/Kg/day times 5 doses each by 2hr i.v. infusion (days 1-5)

      Rituximab 375 mg/m2/week times 8 weeks, randomized half to begin day 1, then repeat for all
      patients with blood-MRD relapse at least 6 months after cladribine. Also may repeat for those
      with blood-MRD relapse at least 6 months after delayed rituximab.

      MRD tests used for the primary objective will be limited to BMBx IHC, blood FACS, and

      bone marrow aspirate FACS, all CLIA certified. Blood MRD relapse is defined as FACS
      positivity or low blood counts (ANC less than 1500/microl, Plt less than 100,000/microl, or
      Hgb less than 11) attributed to HCL. Patients FACS-negative in both blood and bone marrow
      aspirate are considered MRD-negative complete response (CR) regardless of blood counts.

      Randomization: 68 HCL patients with 0 and 62 with 1 prior course of purine analog

      Statistics: 80% power to discriminate rates of MRD of 5 vs. 25%, or 10 vs. 35%

      Non-randomized HCLv arm: 20 patients with HCLv will begin rituximab with cladribine.

      Non-randomized HCL arm: 25 newly diagnosed patients will be enrolled to receive rituximab

      beginning day 1, but beginning before the 1st dose of cladribine, rather than after.

      Accrual ceiling: 177 patients (155 HCL, 2 extra HCL if needed, and 20 HCLv)
    

Trial Arms

NameTypeDescriptionInterventions
1ExperimentalCladribine with immediate Rituximab
  • Cladribine
  • Rituximab
2Active ComparatorCladribine with Rituximab delayed by at least 6 months after Cladribine if and when minimal residual disease is detected
  • Cladribine
  • Rituximab
3ExperimentalNon-randomized group receving Cladribine with immediate Rituximab (before rather than after the 1st of the 5 daily doses of cladribine on day 1)
  • Cladribine
  • Rituximab

Eligibility Criteria

        -  INCLUSION CRITERIA:

        Evidence of HCL by flow cytometry, reviewed by the Laboratory of Pathology, NCI, including
        positivity for CD19, CD22, CD20, and CD11c.

        BMBx consistent with HCL, reviewed by Laboratory of Pathology, NCI. BMBx may be negative in
        HCLv in patients with increasing peripheral blood HCLv cells and spleen size.

        Treatment indicated based on demonstration of at least one of the following no more than 4
        weeks from the time of enrollment, and no less than 6 months after prior purine analog and
        no less than 4 weeks after other prior treatment, if applicable.

          -  Neutropenia (ANC less than 1000 cells/microl).

          -  Anemia (Hgb less than 10g/dL).

          -  Thrombocytopenia (Plt less than 100,000/microl).

          -  Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) of greater than 5,000 cells/microL

          -  Symptomatic splenomegaly.

          -  Enlarging lymph nodes greater than 2cm.

          -  Repeated infections requiring oral or i.v. antibiotics.

          -  Patients who have eligible blood counts within 4 weeks from enrollment will not be
             considered ineligible if subsequent blood counts prior to enrollment fluctuate and
             become ineligible up until the time of enrollment.

        No prior purine analog therapy except up to 1 prior course of cladribine.

        No prior rituximab unless HCLv patient.

        ECOG performance status (78) of 0-3.

        Patients must be able to understand and give informed consent.

        Women of child-bearing age and all men must use birth control of any type until at least 12
        months after the last dose of therapy.

        Creatinine less than or equal to 1.5 or creatinine clearance greater than or equal to 60
        ml/ml.

        Bilirubin less than or equal to 2 unless consistent with Gilbert s (total/direct greater
        than 5), ALT and AST less than or equal to 2.5 times upper limits of normal.

        No other therapy (i.e. chemotherapy, interferon) for 4 weeks prior to study entry, or
        cladribine for 6 months prior to study entry.

        Age at least 18

        Men and women of reproductive potential must agree to use an acceptable method of birth
        control during treatment and for twelve months after completion of treatment.

        Subject has provided written informed consent

        Patients must be willing to co-enroll in the investigator s companion protocol 10-C-0066
        titled Collection of Human Samples to Study Hairy Cell and other Leukemias, and to Develop
        Recombinant Immunotoxins for Cancer Treatment .

        EXCLUSION CRITERIA:

        Presence of active untreated infection

        Uncontrolled coronary disease or NYHA class III-IV heart disease.

        Known infection with HIV. Hepatitis B is allowed only if viral load is undetectable andif
        on anti-hepatitis B therapy like Entecavir. Hepatitis C is allowed only if viral load is
        undetectable, and if the patient has received curative therapy.

        Patients with documented history of no response to cladribine, and without 50% improvement
        in platelets, hemoglobin or granulocytes. This exclusion does not apply to HCLv. These
        patients are eligible regardless of prior response to CDA.

        Pregnant or lactating women.

        Presence of active 2nd malignancy requiring treatment. 2nd malignancies with low activity
        which do not require treatment (i.e. low grade prostate cancer, basal cell or squamous cell
        skin cancer) do not constitute exclusions.

        Inability to comply with study and/or follow-up procedures.

        Presence of CNS disease, which is symptomatic.

        At the Investigator s discretion, receipt of a live vaccine within 4 weeks prior to
        randomization. Efficacy and/or safety of immunization during periods of B-cell depletion
        have not been adequately studied. It is recommended that a patient s vaccination record and
        possible requirements be reviewed. Per the investigator s discretion, the patient may have
        any required vaccination/booster administered at least 4 weeks prior to the initiation of
        study treatment. Review of the patient s immunization status for the following vaccinations
        is recommended: tetanus; diphtheria; influenza; pneumococcal polysaccharide; Varicella;
        measles, mumps and rubella (MMR); and hepatitis B. Patients who are considered to be at
        high risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and for whom the investigator has
        determined that immunization is indicated should complete the entire HBV vaccine series at
        least 4 weeks prior to participation in the study.
      
Maximum Eligible Age:N/A
Minimum Eligible Age:18 Years
Eligible Gender:All
Healthy Volunteers:No

Primary Outcome Measures

Measure:Response Rate
Time Frame:6 months
Safety Issue:
Description:Rate of minimal residual disease (MRD) identified in patients 6 months after beginning cladribine for treatment of HCL compared topatients treated with cladribine combined with rituximab

Secondary Outcome Measures

Measure:MRD-free survival and disease- free survival
Time Frame:1 and 6 months after cladribine
Safety Issue:
Description:percentage of subjects without minimal residual disease or disease after cladribine +/- rituximab
Measure:response to delayed rituximab for relapse
Time Frame:1 and 6 months after cladribine
Safety Issue:
Description:determine if early rituximab compromises later response
Measure:overall response
Time Frame:Every 3 months after cladribine or delayed rituximab for 1 year, then every 6 months until 2.5 years, then yearly
Safety Issue:
Description:determine if MRD levels and tumor markers (soluble CD25 and CD22) after cladribine and/or rituximab correlate with response and clinical endpoints
Measure:blood MRD-free survival
Time Frame:Every 3 months after cladribine or delayed rituximab for 1 year, then every 6 months until 2.5 years, then yearly
Safety Issue:
Description:compare blood MRD-free survival in patients who receive cladribine and up to 2 courses of rituximab, with respect to whether the 1st course of rituximab was used simultaneous with cladribine
Measure:evaluation for BMBx
Time Frame:6 months after cladribine or delayed rituximab, then yearly until 2.5 years, then every other year
Safety Issue:
Description:determine, using MRD and tumor marker data, when bone marrow biopsy (BMBx) can be avoided in managing HCL
Measure:Overall response and MRD
Time Frame:Every 3 months after cladribine or delayed rituximab for 1 year, then every 6 months until 2.5 years, then yearly
Safety Issue:
Description:compare response and MRD after the 1st and 2nd courses of cladribine
Measure:T- and B-cells
Time Frame:Every 3 months after cladribine or delayed rituximab for 1 year, then every 6 months until 2.5 years, then yearly
Safety Issue:
Description:evaluate the effects of cladribine and rituximab on normal T- and B cells
Measure:characterization of monoclonal immunoglobulin rearrangements
Time Frame:Every 3 months after cladribine or delayed rituximab for 1 year, then every 6 months until 2.5 years, then yearly
Safety Issue:
Description:enhance the study of HCL biology by cloning, sequencing and characterizing monoclonal immunoglobulin rearrangements
Measure:overall survival
Time Frame:Every 3 months after cladribine or delayed rituximab for 1 year, then every 6 months until 2.5 years, then yearly
Safety Issue:
Description:Percentage of subjects alive at different time points particularly in patients with poor-prognosis HCL like HCLv
Measure:correlate bone marrow MRI signal with bone marrow biopsy
Time Frame:Every 3 months after cladribine or delayed rituximab for 1 year, then every 6 months until 2.5 years, then yearly
Safety Issue:
Description:To correlate bone marrow MRI signal with bone marrow biopsy, patients will obtain cervical and thoracic spine MRI at baseline and at bone marrow restaging time points, when feasible.

Details

Phase:Phase 2
Primary Purpose:Interventional
Overall Status:Recruiting
Lead Sponsor:National Cancer Institute (NCI)

Trial Keywords

  • Hairy Cell Leukemia
  • Cladribine
  • Rituximab
  • Minimal Residual Disease
  • Leukemia

Last Updated

May 15, 2020