Patients with relapsed Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) who are refractory to or relapse
within 12 months of first-line rituximab-based therapy, have poor outcomes with conventional
approaches to autologous stem cell transplantation as detailed above. The investigators
hypothesize that the intensive mobilization strategy developed can overcome some of the
obstacles to successful autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) by both eliminating
residual disease following salvage therapy and by facilitating stem cell collection. Even
though there is clinical experience in the cooperative group setting with intensive pre-ASCT
mobilization, it has never been prospectively validated in DLBCL and concerns exist as to its
ability to improve outcomes with ASCT in this high-risk, and heavily pretreated group of
patients. Furthermore, most patients in the study site's registry treated with intensive
mobilization were rituximab-naïve and the findings may not translate in the
rituximab-refractory population. The investigators also believe that ofatumumab, a novel
monoclonal antibody against a distinct cluster of differentiation antigen 20 (CD20) epitope
may in fact overcome rituximab resistance in DLBCL patients and through more effective
complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) may eliminate minimal residual disease in the patient
and contaminating tumor cells in the stem cell graft.
This is a single-institution, single-arm, prospective phase II study. Patients with high-risk
DLBCL (defined as either achieving less than complete remission (CR) to initial
rituximab-containing therapy or relapsing within 12 months of initial therapy) will be
enrolled on this study and will undergo staging prior to receiving intensive mobilization
with ofatumumab, etoposide, and high-dose ara-C (OVA). Following successful stem cell
collection, patients will proceed to standard autologous transplantation with
cyclophosphamide, 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU), and etoposide (CBV)
preparative regimen. Response evaluation will occur after salvage therapy, following
intensive mobilization therapy (d42), at day +90 after ASCT, and at 6, 12 and 24 months
thereafter. Event-free, progression-free, and overall survival will also be assessed until 48
months. The primary study endpoint is mobilization-adjusted complete metabolic response rate
(maCR) following OVA. Subjects who are not chemosensitive to salvage therapy (i.e. do not
achieve a partial response or complete response) will be re-evaluated after an additional
salvage regimen. If they are still not chemosensitive at this point, they will be withdrawn
from the study and replaced.
- Diagnosis of refractory or relapsed biopsy-proven CD20+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
or primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma.
- Age 18 years or older
- Refractory to or relapse following a rituximab/anthracycline first-line regimen
- High-risk disease as defined by one of the following:
- First relapse after CR within 12 months of initiation of front-line therapy
- Less than CR to front-line therapy
- Second-line age-adjusted International Prognostic Index score (sAAIPI) of 1 or
higher at the time of relapse
- Receipt of no more than three prior chemotherapy regimens. Monoclonal antibody therapy
alone and involved field radiotherapy are not included in this number. Prior use of
ofatumumab is allowed if there has been no disease progression following that therapy
(i.e. ofatumumab-based salvage regimens are allowed)
- Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status ≤ 2.
Eligibility to proceed to OVA
- Chemosensitive disease as defined by at least a partial response to salvage therapy by
positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) criteria.
- Bone marrow with less than 15% lymphoma cells following salvage therapy. No evidence
- Patients must have adequate organ function with serum creatinine <2.0 mg/dL, total
bilirubin ≤2 times the upper limit of normal (ULN), and aspartate aminotransferase
(AST) ≤3 times the ULN.
- Neutrophils >1,000/μL and platelets >100,000/μL prior to day 0
- No active uncontrolled infection.
Eligibility to proceed to CBV ASCT
- Patients must be out of the hospital after OVA for a minimum of 4 weeks.
- Adequate peripheral blood stem cell collection with cluster of differentiation 34
(CD34) cell dose ≥2 X 106 /kg (actual body weight).
- No evidence of disease progression on day 42 assessment
- Approved by the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Bone Marrow Transplant
Committee to proceed with ASCT.
- Presence of disease transformation from a previously diagnosed low-grade lymphoma
- Progression following prior ofatumumab-based therapy
- Active central nervous system or meningeal involvement by lymphoma. Patients with a
history of central nervous system (CNS) or meningeal involvement must be in a
documented remission by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) evaluation and contrast MRI imaging
for at least 3 months prior to study entry.
- Evidence of myelodysplasia on any bone marrow biopsy.
- Treatment with any known non-marketed drug substance or experimental therapy within 5
terminal half-lives or 4 weeks prior to enrollment, whichever is longer, or currently
participating in any other interventional clinical study.
- Other past or current malignancy. Subjects who have been free of malignancy for at
least 3 years, or have a history of completely resected non-melanoma skin cancer, or
successfully treated in situ carcinoma are eligible.
- Chronic or current infectious disease requiring systemic antibiotics, antifungal, or
antiviral treatment such as, but not limited to, chronic renal infection, chronic
chest infection with bronchiectasis, tuberculosis and active Hepatitis C.
- History of significant cerebrovascular disease in the past 6 months or ongoing event
with active symptoms or sequelae
- Known HIV infection
- Clinically significant cardiac disease including unstable angina, acute myocardial
infarction within six months prior to randomization, congestive heart failure (NYHA
III-IV), and arrhythmia unless controlled by therapy, with the exception of extra
systoles or minor conduction abnormalities.
- Significant concurrent, uncontrolled medical condition including, but not limited to,
renal, hepatic, gastrointestinal, endocrine, pulmonary, neurological, cerebral or
psychiatric disease which in the opinion of the investigator may represent a risk for
- Positive serology for Hepatitis B (HB) defined as a positive test for HbsAg and a
detectable hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA viral load. If negative for HBsAg but HBcAb
positive (regardless of HBsAb status), a HBV DNA test will be performed and if
positive the subject will be excluded. If HBV DNA is negative, subject may be included
but must undergo at least every 2-month HBV DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
testing from the start of treatment during the treatment course. Prophylactic
antiviral therapy may be initiated at the discretion of the investigator.
- Positive serology for hepatitis C (HC) defined as a positive test for hepatitis C
antibody (HCAb), in which case reflexively perform a hepatitis C virus (HCV) PCR to
confirm the result
- Pregnant or lactating women. Women of childbearing potential must have a negative
pregnancy test at screening.
- Women of childbearing potential, including women whose last menstrual period was less
than one year prior to screening, unable or unwilling to use adequate contraception
from study start to one year after the last dose of protocol therapy. Adequate
contraception is defined as hormonal birth control, intrauterine device, double
barrier method or total abstinence.
- Male subjects unable or unwilling to use adequate contraception methods from study
start to one year after the last dose of protocol therapy.
- Subjects who have received live virus vaccination within the 4 weeks prior to planned
initiation of study treatment.