-Some people with wild-type gastrointestinal stromal tumors (WT-GIST) have a deficiency in
one of their proteins called SDH. Vandetanib is a cancer drug that has been approved to
treat thyroid cancer and has been used with some success in other tumors that have a similar
loss of SDH. Researchers want to see if this drug can also decrease tumor growth in people
-To test whether the study drug will benefit people with WT-GIST.
-Adults and children 3 years old and older with WT-GIST.
- Researchers will test participants tumor tissue to confirm it is the wild type of GIST.
- Participants will be screened with a medical history, physical exam, and blood tests.
They will also have electrical recording of the heart (ECOG) and scans of the tumor.
- Participants will take the study drug in 28-day cycles. Their doctor will decide how
many cycles they can complete.
- They will take the study drug once every day and record it in a diary.
- On Day 14, they will also visit their doctor to look for side effects.
- Before cycles 2, 3 and 4, participants will have a physical exam, urine tests, blood
pressure check, and blood tests. These tests will then be done periodically for as long
as they are in the study.
- Before cycle 4, scans will be done to check the size of the cancer. Most of these will
be repeated every 3-6 cycles.
- When they stop taking the study drug, participants will return to the clinic for a
physicial exam and blood tests.
- Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumor of the
gastrointestinal tract, resistant to cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation therapy. KIT
and PDGFRA mutations have been identified as tumor initiating events in 85% of adult
patients with GIST, but 85% of GISTs in pediatric patients lack KIT and PDGFRA
mutations (wild-type) and imatinib is not as effective in eliciting objective
- Recent work in the Pediatric and Wild-Type (wt) GIST Clinic at the NCI led to the
identification of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) germline mutations in 12% patients with
wt-GIST (6/34). SDH protein expression evaluated using immunohistochemistry (IHC) was
markedly decreased or absent in 18/18 patients with pediatric wt-GIST. Thus the
majority of wt-GIST are SDH-deficient. Vandetanib (ZACTIMA; ZD6474; AstraZeneca) is an
oral small molecule antineoplastic drug that inhibits VEGFR2, EGFR, and RET-dependent
signaling. Preliminary preclinical data demonstrate marked growth inhibition of
SDH-mutant/deficient renal cell carcinoma cell lines when treated with vandetanib.
- Primary: To assess the clinical activity (radiographic response RECIST v1.1) of
vandetanib in children and adults with wt-GIST using RECIST (v1.1).
- Secondary: To evaluate the toxicity, progression-free and overall survival, the
pharmacodynamics, and quality of life on treatment with vandetanib.
-Adults and children with measurable localized or metastatic wt-GIST confirmed in a CLIA
laboratory will be eligible for trial participation. Patients must have measurable disease
by RECISTv1.1 and adequate organ function.
- This phase II trial will determine whether daily oral vandetanib is active in patients
with wt-GIST. Vandetanib activity will be assessed primarily by radiographic response
of measurable disease using RECISTv1.1.
- Vandetanib will be administered orally once daily continuously in the absence of
toxicity or disease progression, using a 28-day cycle.
- Patients will be carefully monitored for toxicity and response. A small, optimal
two-stage phase II design with a target response rate of 25% will be used. Nine
evaluable patients will be enrolled initially. If 1 or more of the first 9 have a
response, then accrual would continue until a total of 24 patients have enrolled. If
there are 3 or more responses in 24 (12.5% or more) patients, then this would be
sufficiently interesting activity to warrant further study.
-greater than or equal to 3 years of age and BSA greater than or equal to 0.5 m(2)
- Histologically or cytologically confirmed GIST by the Laboratory of Pathology, NCI.
- Absence of Kit and PDGFRA mutation confirmed in a CLIA certified laboratory.
- Participants must have measurable disease as defined in RECIST (v1.1) as the presence
of at least one lesion not previously irradiated, that can be accurately measured at
baseline greter than or equal to 10mm in the longest diameter (except lymph nodes
which must have short axis greater than or equal to 15 mm) with computed tomography
(CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and which is suitable for accurate repeated
There are no standard chemotherapy regimens known to be effective for wt-GIST. Therefore,
previously untreated participants are eligible if their tumor(s) are measurable.
- Participants must be at least 4 weeks from prior surgical procedures and surgical
incisions must be healed.
- Participants must have had their last fraction of external beam radiation therapy at
least 4 weeks prior to enrollment.
- Participants must have had their last dose of cytotoxic chemotherapy at least 28 days
prior to enrollment, their last dose of biological therapy, such as biological
response modifiers (e.g., cytokines), immunomodulatory agents, vaccines,
differentiating agents, used to treat their cancer at least 7 days prior to
enrollment, their last dose of a monoclonal antibody at least 30 days prior to
enrollment, and their last dose of any investigational agent at least 30 days prior
- Participants must have received their last dose of short acting colony stimulating
factor, such as filgrastim or sargramostim at least 72 hours prior to enrollment and
their last dose of long-acting colony stimulating factors, such as PEG-filgrastim at
least 7 days prior to enrollment.
- Participants must have recovered from the acute toxic effects of prior therapy to a
grade 1 (CTCAE v.4.0) level prior to enrollment (does not apply to alopecia).
Performance Status: Lansky (for participants 10 years of age or younger) or Karnofsky (for
participants older than 10 years) performance score greater than 50
Patients must have normal organ and marrow function as defined below:
- Hematological Function: The peripheral absolute neutrophil count must be at least
1,500/microL and the platelet count must be at least 100,000/microL within 72 hours
prior to enrollment.
- Coagulation: PT and PTT must not be more than 1.5 x ULN within 72 hours prior to
enrollment. PT and PTT should drawn by venipuncture, rather than from a central
venous catheter when feasible.
- Hepatic Function: Bilirubin must not be more than 1.5 x ULN (does not apply to
patients with Gilbert s Disease) and the AST and ALT must not be more than 2.5 x ULN
within 72 hours prior to enrollment, or greater than 5.0 X ULN if in the Investigator
s judgment it is related to liver metastases. AST and ALT may be up to 5 x ULN within
72 hours prior to enrollment in participants with hepatic metastases.
- Renal Function: Participants must have an age-adjusted normal serum creatinine (see
Table) or a creatinine clearance of at least 50 ml/min/1.73 m(2).
Age (years) Male Female
3 to 5 = .42
5 to < 10 = 1
10 to < 13 = 1.2
13 to < 16 = 1.5 male and 1.4 female
16 and older = 1.7 male and 1.4 female
-Participants should have normal blood pressure according to age. Participants 18 years of
age and younger should have a blood pressure 95th percentile for age, height and gender,
and should not be receiving medication for treatment of hypertension. Preexisting
hypertension in adults should be controlled (either with pharmacological or
non-pharmacological methods) at the time of enrollment.
- Participants of child-bearing or child-fathering potential must be willing to use a
medically effective form of birth control, which includes abstinence, while taking
vandetanib and for 4 months after the last dose. [Female patients must be 1 year
postmenopausal, surgically sterile, or using an acceptable method of contraception
(an acceptable method of contraception is defined as a barrier method in conjunction
with a spermicide) for the duration of the study (from the time they sign the
informed consent form [ICF]) and for 3 months after the last dose of vandetanib to
prevent pregnancy. In addition, oral contraceptives, approved contraceptive implant,
long-term injectable contraception, intrauterine device, or tubal ligation are
allowed. Oral contraception alone is not acceptable; additional barrier methods in
conjunction with spermicide must be used.
- Male patients must be surgically sterile or using an acceptable method of
contraception (defined as barrier methods in conjunction with spermicides) for the
duration of the study (from the time they sign the ICF) and for 4 months after the
last dose of vandetanib to prevent pregnancy in a partner.]
- Negative pregnancy test for women of childbearing potential.
-Participants who are 18 years of age or Legally Authorized Representative (LAR) of
participants who are younger than 18 years must sign an informed consent for the POB
Screening Protocol (01-C-0157: Eligibility Screening and Tissue Procurement for the
National Cancer Institute (NCI), Pediatric Oncology Branch (POB) Clinical Research
Protocols) prior to participating in studies required to determine eligibility for this
trial. After confirmation of eligibility, participants or LAR of minor participants must
sign an informed consent document for this trial, indicating that they are aware of the
investigational nature of the proposed treatment, the risks and benefits of participating
and the alternatives to participating, prior to the conduct of any study procedures.
Presence of any of the following will prevent a subject from participation:
- Pregnant or breast feeding females because vandetanib may be harmful to the
developing fetus or nursing infant and has been found to be embryotoxic, fetotoxic
and teratogenic in rats.
- Subjects who are receiving any other investigational agents or who have received an
investigational agent within 28 days prior to enrollment (does not apply to
participation in survival follow up), or who have previous exposure to vandetanib.
- Abnormal Electrolyte Levels: Participants with a serum potassium less than 3.5 mmol/L
or a serum ionized calcium or magnesium below the lower limits of normal (or above
CTCAE Grade 1 upper limit). Correction of these electrolyte abnormalities with
supplements is allowed. (Serum calcium above the CTCAE Grade 1 upper limit. In cases
where the serum calcium is below the normal range, the calcium adjusted for albumin
is to be obtained and substituted for the measured serum value. Exclusion is to then
be based on the calcium adjusted for albumin values falling below the normal limit:
Corrected Calcium = Ca + 0.8 x (4-serum albumin).)
- Presence of hypertension: Diastolic blood pressure above the 95% for age in children
(Appendix 2) and > 160 mmHg systolic or > 100 mmHg diastolic in adults on at least 2
of 3 measurements with an appropriate-size cuff who are unable to achieve blood
pressure control with optimal anti-hypertensive therapy. Patients who are treated
with antihypertensive medications with good response are eligible.
History of Cardiac Disorder:
- Participants with a history of arrhythmia (multifocal premature ventricular
contractions, bigeminy, trigeminy, ventricular tachycardia, uncontrolled atrial
fibrillation, left bundle branch block) that is symptomatic or requires treatment
(except for controlled atrial fibrillation).
- History of any significant cardiac event (e.g. myocardial infarction), superior vena
cava syndrome, New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification of heart disease
greater than or equal 2 within 12 weeks before starting treatment, or presence of
cardiac disease that in the opinion of the Investigator increases the risk of
- Participants with a history of congenitally prolonged QTc, a first degree relative
with unexplained sudden death under 40 years of age, or a measured QTcB (Bazett s
correction) longer than 480 msec on ECG. ECGs should be performed after correction of
electrolyte abnormalities. Participants with a prolonged QTcB should have a repeat
ECG twice, at least 24 hour apart, and the average of the 3 QTcBs should not exceed
480 msec. History of QT prolongation associated with other medications that required
discontinuation of that medication.
- Participants receiving a medication that has a known risk of QTc prolongation or is
associated with Torsades de Pointes or any prohibited medications, concomitantly or
within 14 days (28 days for levomethadyl) of enrollment.
- Impairment of gastrointestinal function or gastrointestinal disease that may
significantly alter the absorption of vandetanib as evidenced by uncontrolled nausea,
vomiting or diarrhea and/or current need for parenteral support with iron or Vitamin
- Other clinically severe or uncontrolled systemic illness or any concurrent condition
that in the view of the principal investigator could compromise the participant s
ability to tolerate vandetanib or could compromise study procedures or endpoints,
including interstitial lung disease, drug-induced interstitial disease, radiation
pneumonitis which required steroid treatment or any evidence of clinically active
interstitial lung disease.
- Unstable brain metastases or spinal cord compression that requires treatment, unless
the treatment ended at least 4 weeks before starting treatment and the condition has
been stable without steroid treatment for at least 10 days.
- Major surgery (includes surgery that carries significant risk of blood loss, extended
periods of general anesthesia, or requires at least an overnight hospital admission)
within 28 days before starting treatment.
- Involvement in the planning and/or conduct of the study.
- Previous enrollment in the present study.
- Previous or current malignancies of other histologies within the last 5 years, with
the exception of in situ carcinoma of the cervix and adequately treated basal cell or
squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.
Minimum Eligible Age: 3 Years
Maximum Eligible Age: N/A
Eligible Gender: Both