This study considers the safety and tolerability of increasing doses of CX-4945 in
combination with gemcitabine plus cisplatin to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD),
followed by a randomized study that compares antitumor activity in cholangiocarcinoma
patients receiving the standard of care gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus CX-4945 at the
combination MTD with gemcitabine plus cisplatin.
Protein kinase CK2 is a constitutively active serine/threonine kinase with a long history as
a pro-survival, anti-apoptotic kinase. Given the wide spread overexpression of CK2 in
multiple cancers and its role in multiple non-oncogenic processes required to sustain the
cancer phenotype, a selective inhibitor of CK2 is an attractive targeted approach to
CX-4945 is a tetracyclic, small molecule carboxylate acid salt that exhibits potent and
highly selective inhibition of CK2. Protein kinase CK2 is also known to play an important
role in the DNA damage repair mechanisms of cancer cells, and this study of CX-4945 in
combination with gemcitabine plus cisplatin will determine if inhibition of CK2, in
conjunction with the use of chemotherapy drugs, will result in improved clinical outcomes
for patients with non-resectable cholangiocarcinoma.
- Presence of an unresectable liver mass consistent with cholangiocarcinoma, for which
treatment with gemcitabine plus cisplatin is intended.
- For patients enrolled in the Dose Escalation Phase, one or more tumors measurable on
radiograph or CT scan, or evaluable disease defined as non-measurable lesions per
RECIST v. 1.1 (e.g., malignant ascites). All patients enrolled to the Randomized
Study Phase must have measurable disease only.
- Laboratory data as specified below:
- Hematology: Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >1,500 cells/mm3, platelet count
>100,000 cells/ mm.cu. and hemoglobin > 9 g/dL
- Hepatic: bilirubin <1.5 X Upper Limit of Normal (ULN); alkaline phosphatase
(ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) < 5.0
- Renal: serum creatinine within normal limits (WNL), defined as within 25% of the
institution's stated reference range, or a calculated creatinine clearance >45
mL/min/1.73 m. sq. for patients with abnormal, increased, creatinine levels.
- Coagulation: International Normalized Ratio (INR) < 1.5 times normal, activated
Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT) < 1.5 times normal. Patients receiving
therapeutic doses of anticoagulant therapy may be considered eligible for the
trial if INR and aPTT are within the acceptable therapeutic limits for the
- Estimated life expectancy of at least 3 months.
- Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Performance Status 0 - 1.
- A history of prior systemic treatment with gemcitabine or cisplatin. At least six
months must have elapsed if gemcitabine or cisplatin was administered in an adjuvant
- Seizure disorders requiring anticonvulsant therapy.
- Known brain metastases (unless previously treated and well controlled for a period of
at least 3 months).
- Major surgery other than diagnostic surgery, within 4 weeks prior to the first dose
of test drug, minor surgery including diagnostic surgery within 2 weeks (14 days)
excluding central IV port placements and needle aspirate/core biopsies. Radio
frequency ablation or transcatheter arterial chemoembolization within 6 weeks prior
to the first dose of test drug.
- Treatment with radiation therapy or surgery within one month prior to study entry.
- Treatment with chemotherapy or investigational drugs within 21 days prior to the
screening visit. Acute toxicities from prior therapy must have resolved to Grade ≤ 1
- Patients with a history of another malignancy within 3 years of the baseline visit.
(Patients with cutaneous carcinomas or in-situ carcinomas will be considered for
study entry on a case-by-case basis).
- Concurrent severe or uncontrolled medical disease (i.e., systemic infection,
diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure).
- Active symptomatic fungal, bacterial and/or viral infection including active HIV or
viral (A, B or C) hepatitis.
- Difficulty with swallowing or an active malabsorption syndrome.
- Chronic diarrhea (excess of 2-3 stools/day above normal frequency).
- Gastrointestinal diseases including gastritis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease,
or hemorrhagic coloproctitis.
- History of gastric or small bowel surgery involving any extent of gastric or small
- Clinically significant bleeding event within the last 3 months, unrelated to trauma,
or underlying condition that would be expected to result in a bleeding diathesis.
- Patients who have exhibited allergic reactions to a similar structural compound or to
a formulation component of CX-4945.
- Concomitant use either of warfarin and/or 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A
(HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins).