- Traditional therapeutic approaches to pediatric cancer have focused on cytotoxic agents
and, more recently, targeted inhibition of cellular signaling pathways through the use
of small molecule kinase inhibitors. Despite these interventions, significant numbers of
pediatric cancer patients develop recurrent and resistant disease. Targeting the tumor
microenvironment is a promising but incompletely explored strategy for the treatment of
pediatric cancer and non-cancer tumors.
- This trial will begin to explore the disruption of the interaction between neoplastic
cells and the myeloid component of the tumor microenvironment as a treatment strategy
for pediatric cancers and neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) related plexiform neurofibromas
(PN) and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST).
- PLX3397 is an orally available small molecule inhibitor of class III protein tyrosine
kinases including Kit, CSF1R (colony stimulating factor 1 receptor)/Fms (Feline
McDonough Sarcoma), and oncogenic Flt3 (Fms like tyrosine kinase).
- Phase I: Evaluate the safety and tolerability of PLX3397, and determine a recommended
phase II dose of PLX3397 in pediatric patients with refractory solid tumors including
NF1 MPNST and brain tumors or refractory leukemias, limited to acute myelogenous
leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
- Phase II: Determine the anti-tumor activity of PLX3397 in patients with NF1 PN.
Objective response rate (ORR) will be defined as the proportion of patients with a
partial response (PN volume decrease greater than or equal to 20% determined by
volumetric MRI analysis).
- Tumor type:
- Phase I: Children (greater than or equal to 3 and lessthan or equal to 21 years of
age) with recurrent or refractory solid tumors including primary neoplasms of the
central nervous system and patients with NF1 and MPNST, or Children (greater than
or equal to 3 and less than or equal to 21 years of age) with refractory leukemias
(AML or ALL) (Phase 1).
- Phase II: Patients with NF1 and inoperable PN, that cause morbidity (greater than
or equal to 3 and less than or equal to 35 years of age).
- Subjects must have adequate performance status, be able to swallow tablets, may not be
pregnant or breastfeeding, and have adequate major organ function. Subjects with history
of severe or uncontrolled intercurrent illness including, but not limited to, ongoing or
active infection, symptomatic cardiovascular or pulmonary disease, or history of
prolonged QT syndrome will be excluded.
- Phase I
- Using a rolling-six phase I design with 2-6 subjects per dose level and standard
definitions of MTD (during cycle 1) and DLT.
- PLX3397 will be administered orally (200 mg capsules) once daily on a continuous
basis for cycles of 28 days without a rest period between cycles. Patients must be
able to swallow intact capsules. Dosing will be based on body surface area (BSA),
and the total weekly dose will be rounded to within 10% of calculated dose using a
- At the MTD, the recommended phase II dose level will be expanded to up to 12
patients with attempts made to enroll at least 3 patients with refractory solid
tumors and 3 patients with refractory acute leukemia (ALL and AML) to gain more
experience with the toxicities and pharmacokinetics of PLX3397 in these disease
cohorts. Attempts will be made to enroll equal numbers of patients between the ages
of 3 and 12 years and over 12 years of age to gain pharmacokinetic and safety data
over a broad age range.
- Phase II
- A Simon 2-stage design will be used: 9 evaluable patients with NF1 and inoperable
PN that cause morbidity will be enrolled on the initial stage, and if greater than
or equal to 1/9 patients have a response (PN volume decrease greater than or equal
to 20% compared to baseline), enrollment will be expanded to a total of 17
- Impact of therapy on patient-reported outcomes will be evaluated in patients with
PN. This study will assess both general health-related qualify of life (QOL) and
pain (pain intensity and pain interference) as patient-reported outcomes (PROs).
- To complete both Phase I and Phase II portions, a maximum of (24 + 17= 41 plus up
to 6 to replace inevaluable patients) 47 patients will be accrued in 2 to 2.5
- INCLUSION CRITERIA:
- Phase I: Patients must have recurrent or refractory solid tumors or acute
leukemia (limited to AML or ALL) or have been intolerant of prior therapies,
confirmed by the Laboratory of Pathology, NCI, e.g., solid tumors including
rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, soft tissue sarcomas. These may include primary
neoplasms of the central nervous system, such as high-grade (WHO grade III-IV)
glioma. Patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) or optic pathway
glioma are exempt from histologic verification. For DIPG typical MRI findings
must be present which include hypo- or isointense on T1-weighted imaging,
hyperintense on FLAIR or T2-weighted imaging, epicenter in the pons in the face
of a typical clinical presentation. Optic pathway glioma are located in the optic
pathway and are typically hypo- or iso-intense on T1 and hyperintense on
- In addition, patients with NF1 and with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor
- Phase II: inoperable PN causing morbidity, such as (but not limited to) head and
neck lesions that could compromise the airway or great vessels, brachial or
lumbar plexus lesions that could cause nerve compression and loss of function,
lesions that could result in major deformity (e.g., orbital lesions) or
significant cosmetic problems, lesions of the extremity that cause limb
hypertrophy or loss of function, and painful lesions in patients with NF1.
- Histologic confirmation of PN tumor is not necessary in the presence of
consistent clinical and radiographic findings but should be considered if
malignant degeneration of a PN is clinically suspected.
- A PN is defined as a neurofibroma that has grown along the length of a nerve and
may involve multiple fascicles and branches. A spinal PN involves two or more
levels with connection between the levels or extending laterally along the nerve.
In addition to PN, all study subjects must have either positive genetic testing
for NF1 confirmed in a CLIA certified laboratory or have at least one other
diagnostic criterion for NF1 listed below (NIH Consensus conference):
- Six or more cafe-au-lait macules (greater than or equal to 0.5cm in
prepubertal subjects or greater than or equal to 1.5 cm in post pubertal
- Freckling in axilla or groin
- Optic glioma
- Two or more Lisch nodules
- A distinctive bony lesion (dysplasia of the sphenoid bone or dysplasia or
thinning of long bone cortex)
- A first-degree relative with NF1
- Patients must have relapsed after or be refractory to effective standard
therapies. For NF1 PN there is no standard medical therapy, and therefore no
requirement for prior therapy. There are no limits on number of prior
- Disease status: Phase I: Patients with refractory solid tumors including patients with
NF1 and MPNST must have evaluable disease, patients with leukemia must have measurable
or evaluable disease at the time of enrollment, which may include any evidence of
disease including minimal residual disease detected by flow cytometry.
--Phase II: Patients must have measurable disease.
- Age (must have BSA greater than or equal to 0.55 m^2):
- Phase I: greater than or equal to 3 and less than or equal to 21 years of age
- Phase II: greater than or equal to 3 and less than or equal to 35 years of age
- Ability of subject or Legally Authorized Representative [LAR] (the parent/guardian if
subject is a minor) to understand and the willingness to sign a written informed
- Patients must be able to swallow capsules.
- Performance Status: Karnofsky greater than or equal to 50% for patients > 16 years of
age and Lansky greater than or equal to 50% for patients less than or eqal to 16 years
of age. Subjects who are wheelchair bound because of paralysis will be considered
"ambulatory" when they are up in their wheelchair. Subjects have to be able to travel
to the NIH for evaluations.
- Prior therapy:
Patients must have fully recovered (to Grade 1) from the acute toxic effects of all prior
- Myelosuppressive chemotherapy: At least 21 days after the last dose of
myelosuppressive chemotherapy (42 days if prior nitrosourea).
- Biologic (anti-neoplastic agent): At least 7 days after the last dose of a biologic
agent. For agents that have known adverse events occurring beyond 7 days after
administration, this period must be extended beyond the time during which adverse
events are known to occur. The duration of this interval must be discussed with the
- Immunotherapy: At least 42 days after the completion of any type of immunotherapy,
e.g. tumor vaccines.
- Monoclonal antibodies: At least 3 half-lives of the antibody after the last dose of a
- XRT: At least 7 days after local palliative XRT (small port); At least 150 days must
have elapsed if prior TBI or if greater than or equal to 50% radiation of pelvis;
greater than or equal to 14 days from whole brain radiation, craniospinal radiation,
or targeted radiation to CNS tumors. At least 42 days must have elapsed if other
substantial BM radiation.
- HSCT: greater than or equal to 56 days from stem cell transplant with no evidence of
active graft vs. host disease; must be off immunosuppressive therapy for at least 4
weeks and have no active graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) at the time of entry onto
- Surgery: greater than or equal to 14 days from surgery
- Others: greater than or equal to 7 days from last dose of short active hematopoietic
growth factors, i.e. filgrastim, greater than or equal to 14 days for long-acting,
- Steroids: Patients with CNS tumors who are managed with steroids are eligible if they
have no worsening neurologic deficits and are on a stable or decreasing dose of
corticosteroids for greater than or equal to 7 days prior to registration. Patients
with leukemia receiving corticosteroids or hydroxyurea are eligible provided that the
corticosteroids are not being used to manage GVHD and there has been no increase in
corticosteroid of hydroxyurea dose for 7 days prior to starting PLX3397
- Patient must have adequate hematologic, hepatic, and renal function, defined by:
- Absolute neutrophil count >= 1.5 (SqrRoot) 10^9/L
- Hemoglobin > 10 g/dL
- Platelet count >= 100 (SqrRoot) 10^9/L
- AST and ALT less than or equal to upper limit of normal (ULN)
- TBil and DBil less than or equal to ULN with an exception of patients with confirmed
Gilbert's syndrome. For
patients with confirmed Gilberts syndrome, the TBil should be less than or equal to 1.5
- Serum creatinine less than or equal to 1.5 (SqrRoot) ULN
- Cytopenias due to underlying disease (i.e. potentially reversible with
anti-neoplastic therapy); A subject will not be excluded because of cytopenia due
to disease, based on the results of bone marrow studies.
- Known active or chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis C virus
(HCV) infection, or positive hepatitis B (Hep B) surface antigen. Prior hepatitis
infection that has been treated with highly effective therapy with no evidence of
residual infection and with normal liver function (ALT, AST, total and direct
bilirubin less than or equal to ULN) is allowed.
- Hepatobiliary diseases including biliary tract diseases, autoimmune hepatitis,
inflammation, fibrosis, cirrhosis of liver caused by viral, alcohol, or genetic
reasons. Gilbert's disease is allowed if TBil is less than or equal to 1.5 x ULN.
- Cardiac ejection fraction greater than or equal to 50%, and QTcF < 450 ms
(male) or <470 ms (female) on ECG at Baseline. (Fridericia's Formula: QTcF =
- Contraception: Women of child-bearing potential must agree to use an
effective method of birth control during treatment and for 1 month after
receiving their last dose of study drug. Fertile men must also agree to use
an acceptable method of birth control while on study drug and for at least
one week after last dose.
- Individuals who are pregnant or breast feeding or who become pregnant while enrolled
on this trial will be excluded from participation, due to the unknown effects of
PLX3397 on a growing fetus or newborn child.
- Individuals with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors will not be eligible to
participate in the phase II portion of the trial.
- Ongoing treatment with any other cancer therapy or investigational agent, with the
exception of IT chemotherapy for leukemia, when indicated.
- Individuals who require therapy with warfarin.
- Uncontrolled intercurrent illness including, but not limited to, ongoing or active
infection, symptomatic congestive heart failure, unstable angina pectoris, cardiac
arrhythmia, or psychiatric illness/social situations that would limit compliance with
- Active untreated infection.
- Known chronic Hepatitis B or C, or HIV infection.
- History of allergic reactions attributed to compounds of similar chemical or biologic
composition to PLX3397 or other agents used in study.
- Patients with PT and/or INR higher than or equal to 1.5 time upper limit of normal,
unless patients have lupus anticoagulant in which case they are eligible if cleared by
- Drugs that strongly inhibit or potentiate CYP3A4:
- During Phase I: patients who have received these drugs within 14 days or within 5
half-lives of the drug (whichever is longer) prior to study initiation will be
- During Phase II: These drugs should be avoided if possible, as these drugs could
increase or decrease blood levels of PLX3397.