Clinical Trials /

A Study of Lenalidomide in Pediatric Subjects With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

NCT02538965

Description:

To determine the activity of lenalidomide in the treatment of pediatric subjects with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (with second or greater relapse or refractory to at least 2 prior induction attempts) measured by morphological complete response defined as either a CR or CRi within the first 4 cycles of treatment.

Related Conditions:
  • Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Recruiting Status:

Completed

Phase:

Phase 2

Trial Eligibility

Document

Title

  • Brief Title: A Study of Lenalidomide in Pediatric Subjects With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia
  • Official Title: A Phase 2, Multicenter, Single-arm, Open-label Study to Evaluate the Activity, Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Lenalidomide (Revlimid®) in Pediatric Subjects From 1 to = 18 Years of Age With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Clinical Trial IDs

  • ORG STUDY ID: CC-5013-AML-002
  • NCT ID: NCT02538965

Conditions

  • Leukemia, Myeloid

Interventions

DrugSynonymsArms
LenalidomideLenalidomide

Purpose

To determine the activity of lenalidomide in the treatment of pediatric subjects with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (with second or greater relapse or refractory to at least 2 prior induction attempts) measured by morphological complete response defined as either a CR or CRi within the first 4 cycles of treatment.

Detailed Description

      This is a multicenter, open-label, single-arm, Phase 2, Simon's Optimal two-stage design
      study, with an Optional Extension Phase (OEP), that will assess the activity, safety and
      pharmacokinetics (PK) of lenalidomide in pediatric subjects from 1 to ≤ 18 years of age with
      second or greater Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia (rrAML). A total of 43
      evaluable participants (18 participants in Stage 1 and an additional 25 participants in Stage
      2) are required for assessment of the primary endpoint. To allow for participants found to be
      unevaluable for the primary endpoint due to an incorrect diagnosis, not having a disease
      assessment post screening, or who discontinued prior to receiving lenalidomide, up to 4
      additional participants may be enrolled for a maximum of 47 evaluable subjects across
      approximately 70 sites. Approximately 50% of enrolled participants will be younger than 12
      years of age to provide adequate PK data for this age subset.

      If during Stage 1, at least 3 of 18 participants achieve a morphologic complete response
      (either CR or CRi) within the first 4 cycles of study treatment, then the study will proceed
      to Stage 2; otherwise, the study will be terminated. Similarly, if at the final analysis, at
      least 8 of 43 evaluable subjects across Stages 1 and 2 achieve a response (CR/CRi) within the
      first 4 cycles of study treatment, it will be concluded that lenalidomide has sufficient
      activity in pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) to warrant subsequent study. The optional
      extension phase (OEP) will allow participants who demonstrate clinical benefit, as assessed
      by the Investigator at the completion of 12 cycles of lenalidomide therapy, to continue
      receiving oral lenalidomide until they meet the criteria for study discontinuation. In the
      OEP, only safety, dosing, concomitant medications/procedures, and second primary malignancies
      (SPMs) will be monitored.
    

Trial Arms

NameTypeDescriptionInterventions
LenalidomideExperimentalLenalidomide API will administered at a starting dose of 2 mg/kg/day. Lenalidomide will be provided as either a capsule (2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 15 mg, 20 mg or 25 mg) or as an oral suspension (10mg/mL).
  • Lenalidomide

Eligibility Criteria

        Inclusion Criteria:

        - Participants must satisfy the following criteria to be enrolled in the study:

          1. Male or female is 1 to ≤ 18 years of age at the time of signing the Informed Consent
             Form / Informed Assent Form (ICF/IAF).

          2. Participants (when applicable, parental/legal representative) must understand and
             voluntarily provide permission to the ICF/IAF prior to conducting any study-related
             assessments/procedures.

          3. Participants have relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia after at least 2 prior
             induction attempts:

               -  Bone marrow aspirate or biopsy must have ≥ 5% blasts by morphology and/or flow
                  cytometry.

               -  Each block of chemotherapy is a separate reinduction attempt.

               -  Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) is considered a reinduction attempt.

          4. Participants are willing and able to adhere to the study visit schedule and other
             protocol requirements.

          5. Participants have a Karnofsky score of ≥ 50% (participants ≥ 16 years of age) or a
             Lansky score ≥ 50% (participants < 16 years of age).

          6. Participants have a resting left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of ≥ 40%
             obtained by echocardiography.

          7. Participants have recovered from the acute toxic effects of all prior chemotherapy,
             immunotherapy, or radiotherapy prior to first dose. All prior treatment-related
             toxicities must have resolved to ≤ Grade 2 prior to enrollment.

          8. Regarding radiation therapy, time elapsed prior to first dose of lenalidomide:

               -  2 weeks for local palliative radiation therapy (XRT).

               -  8 weeks if prior craniospinal chemoradiation therapy (CRT) or if ≥ 50% radiation
                  of pelvis.

               -  6 weeks if other bone marrow radiation has been administered.

          9. Graft-versus-host disease criteria:

               -  Participants must be at least 2 months (from first dose of lenalidomide) from
                  stem cell infusion.

               -  Participants must have no evidence of active acute or chronic GVHD (Grade 0) for
                  4 weeks prior to the first dose of lenalidomide.

               -  If the participants have a history of maximum Grade 1 or 2 GVHD that was treated
                  with systemic steroid (≥ 0.5 mg/kg/day prednisone equivalents) or other
                  non-steroid systemic IST, the participant must be off all IST for at least 2
                  weeks, and must have ceased treatment doses of steroids for GVHD (≥ 0.5 mg/kg/day
                  prednisone equivalents) for at least 4 weeks.

                    -  If the participants have a history of Grade 3 or greater GVHD, the
                       participants must be off all systemic IST for 4 weeks

                    -  Topical therapy is permitted and does not imply the participants have active
                       acute or chronic GVHD.

               -  Physiologic dosing of hydrocortisone is permitted.

         10. At least 4 weeks (from first dose) elapsed from donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI)
             without conditioning.

         11. Participants have adequate renal function, which is defined as:

             - Creatinine clearance calculated using the Schwartz formula, or radioisotope
             glomerular filtration rate (GFR) > 70 mL/min/1.73 m2.

         12. Participants have adequate liver function, which is defined as:

               -  Total bilirubin is ≤ 2 mg/dL unless the increase in bilirubin is attributable to
                  Gilbert's Syndrome

               -  Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is ≤ 3.0 x upper normal limit (ULN) for age. For
                  the purpose of this study, the ULN for AST is 50 U/L.

               -  Alanine transaminase (ALT) is ≤ 3.0 x upper normal limit (ULN) for age. For the
                  purpose of this study, the ULN for ALT is 45 U/L.

         13. Female Children of Childbearing Potential (FCCBP), Female of Childbearing Potential
             (FCBP) and male participants that have reached puberty must agree to undergo
             physician-approved reproductive education and discuss the side effects of the study
             therapy on reproduction with parent(s) and/or guardian(s).

         14. All participants and/or parents/guardians must have an understanding that lenalidomide
             could have a potential teratogenic risk. Female children of childbearing potential, is
             defined as females who have achieved menarche and/or breast development in Tanner
             Stage 2 or greater and have not undergone a hysterectomy or bilateral oophorectomy and
             FCBP defined as a sexually mature woman who has not undergone a hysterectomy or
             bilateral oophorectomy and has not been naturally postmenopausal for at least 24
             consecutive months (ie, has had menses at any time in the preceding 24 consecutive
             months) must meet the following conditions below (Note: Amenorrhea following cancer
             therapy does not rule out childbearing potential):

               -  Medically supervised serum pregnancy tests with a sensitivity of at least 25
                  mIU/mL must be conducted in FCCBP/FCBP, including those who commit to complete
                  abstinence*. FCCBP/FCBP must have two pregnancy tests (with a minimum sensitivity
                  of 25 mIU/mL) prior to starting treatment with lenalidomide. The first pregnancy
                  test must be performed within 10 - 14 days prior to the start of lenalidomide
                  treatment and the second pregnancy test must be performed within 24 hours prior
                  to starting treatment with lenalidomide.

        NOTE: The pregnancy test 10 to 14 days prior to initiation of lenalidomide may be omitted,
        at the discretion of the investigator, for any FCCBP/FCBP who has high acuity disease
        requiring immediate treatment with lenalidomide. The pregnancy test within 24 hours prior
        to the first dose of lenalidomide is required to be performed.

        The participants may not received Investigational Product (IP) until the investigator has
        verified that the results of these pregnancy tests performed on Cycle 1 Day 1 are negative.
        FCCBP/FCBP with regular or no menstrual cycles must agree to have pregnancy tests weekly
        for the first 28 days of study participation and then every 28 days while on study, at
        study Treatment Discontinuation Visit, and at Day 28 following IP discontinuation. If
        menstrual cycles are irregular, the pregnancy testing must occur weekly for the first 28
        days and then every 14 days while on study, at study Treatment Discontinuation Visit, and
        at Days 14 and 28 following IP discontinuation.

          -  Female participants must, as appropriate to age and at the discretion of the study
             Investigator, either commit to true abstinence* from heterosexual contact (which must
             be reviewed on a monthly basis) and/or agree to the use of two reliable forms of
             approved and effective contraceptive methods simultaneously. The two methods of
             reliable contraception must include one highly effective method and one additional
             effective (barrier) method (oral, injectable, or implantable hormonal contraceptive;
             tubal ligation; intra-uterine device; barrier contraceptive with spermicide; or
             vasectomized partner) without interruption, 28 days prior to starting lenalidomide
             treatment, throughout the entire duration of study treatment including dose
             interruptions and 28 days after the end of study treatment.

          -  All male and female participants must follow all requirements defined in the Pregnancy
             Prevention Program.

             16. Male participants, as appropriate to age and the discretion of the study
             physician:

          -  Must practice true abstinence* or agree to use a condom during sexual contact with a
             pregnant female or a female of childbearing potential while participating in the
             study, during dose interruptions and for at least 28 days following lenalidomide
             discontinuation, even if he has undergone a successful vasectomy or practices complete
             abstinence.

        Exclusion Criteria:

          1. Participants have Down syndrome.

          2. Participants have French-American-British classification (FAB) type M3 leukemia (acute
             promyelocytic leukemia) or identification of t(15;17).

          3. Participants have isolated central nervous system (CNS) involvement or extramedullary
             relapse. (Participants with combined CNS/marrow relapse may be enrolled).

          4. Participants had prior treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy within 2 weeks of the
             first dose of lenalidomide with the exception of hydroxyurea (allowed prior to the
             first dose of lenalidomide and through Day 14 of Cycle 1) and intrathecal (IT)
             cytarabine will be administered within 2 weeks prior to administration of
             lenalidomide.

          5. Participants have had prior treatment with biologic antineoplastic agents less than 7
             days before the first dose of lenalidomide. For agents that have known adverse events
             (AEs) occurring beyond 7 days after administration (ie, monoclonal antibodies), this
             period must be extended beyond the time during which acute AEs are known to occur.

          6. Participants have had prior treatment with lenalidomide.

          7. Participant is pregnant or lactating.

          8. Participants have an uncontrolled systemic fungal, bacterial, or viral infection
             (defined as ongoing signs/symptoms related to the infection without improvement
             despite appropriate antibiotics, antiviral therapy, and/or other treatment).

          9. Participants has known Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positivity (participants who
             are receiving antiretroviral therapy for HIV disease).

         10. Participants have a prior history of malignancies other than AML unless the subject
             has been free of the disease for ≥ 5 years from first dose of lenalidomide.

         11. The presence of any of the following will exclude a participant from enrollment:

               -  Participants have any significant medical condition, laboratory abnormality, or
                  psychiatric illness that would prevent the participant from participating in the
                  study.

               -  Participants have any condition including the presence of laboratory
                  abnormalities, which places the participant at unacceptable risk if he/she were
                  to participate in the study.

               -  Participants have any condition that confounds the ability to interpret data from
                  the study.

         12. Participants have cardiac disorders (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events
             [CTCAE] version 4.03 Grade 3 or 4).

         13. Participants have a history of well-documented prior veno-occlusive disease (VOD).

         14. Participants have any other organ dysfunction (CTCAE version 4.03 Grade 4) that will
             interfere with the administration of the therapy according to this protocol.
      
Maximum Eligible Age:18 Years
Minimum Eligible Age:1 Year
Eligible Gender:All
Healthy Volunteers:No

Primary Outcome Measures

Measure:Number of Participants Who Achieved a Morphologic Complete Response Within the First Four Cycles of Lenalidomide Treatment According to the Modified International Working Group (IWG) Criteria
Time Frame:From day of the first dose of IP to end of cycle 4; Response was assessed at the completion of the 21-day treatment period of cycles 1, 2, 3, and 4 and at treatment discontinuation.
Safety Issue:
Description:The morphological complete response rate was defined as the total number of participants with morphological CR observed within the first 4 cycles of lenalidomide (regardless of whether the CR/CRi was observed at the end of Cycle 1, 2, 3 or 4) over the total number of participants evaluable for this endpoint. According to Modified IWG criteria, morphologic CR was defined as: Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≥ 1000/μL and platelets ≥ 100,000 without transfusions and/or exogenous growth factor support (i.e., no transfusion or exogenous growth factor within 7 days of assessment; Bone marrow < 5% blasts evidence of trilineage hematopoiesis; No evidence of extramedullary disease. Morphologic CRi was defined as: ANC < 1000/μL and platelets < 100,000/μL or > 100,000/μL without platelet recovery (requiring transfusion within 7 days of assessment); BM with < 5% blasts and evidence of trilineage hematopoiesis; No evidence of extramedullary disease.

Secondary Outcome Measures

Measure:Number of Participants Who Achieved a Bone Marrow Confirmed CR/CRi Lasting 3 Months (Durable Response Rate)
Time Frame:From date of confirmed complete response observed until treatment failure or worse; up to data cut-off date of 31 December 2017
Safety Issue:
Description:Durable response rate was defined as the percentage of participants who achieved a BM confirmed CR/CRi according to the Modified IWG Response Assessment Lasting 3 Months (from the time to complete response observed until treatment failure or worse) or until transplantation if earlier among all participants eligible for durable response rate analysis, provided the CR/CRi was confirmed in a bone marrow sample). Due to scarcity of relevant data, it was not practical or meaningful to analyze the durable response rate. Only 1 participant had a response and the participant was censored soon after, as the consent was withdrawn; unable to calculate duration of response.
Measure:Duration of Response
Time Frame:From date of first time of complete response observed until treatment failure or worse; up to data cut-off date of 31 December 2017
Safety Issue:
Description:Duration of response was defined as the time from date of the first observed response (CR, CRi or PR) until morphologic relapse, molecular/cytogenetic relapse, or death only for participants who achieved a response. Due to scarcity of relevant data, it was not practical or meaningful to analyze the duration of response. Only 1 participant had a response and the participant was censored soon after, as the consent was withdrawn; unable to calculate duration of response.
Measure:Number of Participants Who Achieved a Best Response of Morphologic Complete Remission, Morphologic Complete Remission Incomplete or Partial Remission
Time Frame:Response was assessed at the completion of the 21-day treatment period of cycles 1, 2, and 3
Safety Issue:
Description:Overall response rate was defined as the number of participants with best response of CR, CRi or PR. A CR = ANC ≥ 1000/μL and platelets ≥ 100,000 without transfusions and/or exogenous growth factor (GF) support (no transfusion or exogenous growth factor within 7 days of assessment); BM < 5% blasts evidence of trilineage hematopoiesis; No evidence of extramedullary disease A CRi was defined as: ANC < 1000/μL and platelets < 100,000/μL or > 100,000/μL without platelet recovery (requiring transfusion within 7 days of assessment); BM with < 5% blasts and evidence of trilineage hematopoiesis; No evidence of extramedullary disease. A PR = 1. ANC of ≥ 1000/μL and platelets ≥ 100,000 without transfusions and/or exogenous growth factor support (no transfusion or exogenous growth factor within 7 days of assessment); 2. BM with 5% to 25% blasts and at least a 50% decrease in BM blast percent from baseline; 3. No evidence of extramedullary disease
Measure:Number of Participants With a Morphologic CR, CRi, PR or Treatment Failure at Cycles 1, 2 and 3
Time Frame:Response was assessed at the completion of the 21-day treatment period of cycles 1, 2, and 3
Safety Issue:
Description:Disease assessment outcome at the end of Cycles 1-3 based on Cheson criteria: Morphologic CR = ANC ≥ 1000/μL and platelet ≥ 100,000 without transfusions and/or exogenous growth factor support (no transfusion or exogenous GF within 7 days of assessment) BM < 5% blasts evidence of trilineage hematopoiesis No evidence of extramedullary disease Morphologic CRi = 1. ANC< 1000/μL and Platelets < 100,000/μL or > 100,000/μL without platelet recovery (requiring transfusion within 7 days of assessment) 2. BM with < 5% blasts and evidence of trilineage hematopoiesis 3. No evidence of extramedullary disease PR = ANC ≥ 1000/μL and platelets ≥ 100,000 without transfusions and/or exogenous growth factor support BM with < 5%-25% blasts and at least a 50% decrease in BM blast percent from baseline No evidence of extramedullary disease Treatment Failure = resistant disease; survival ≥ 7 days post-therapy; failed to achieve CR, CRi, or PR but stable with pers
Measure:Number of Participants Who Received a Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant (HSCT)
Time Frame:From first dose of study drug up to 5 years post HSCT
Safety Issue:
Description:The number of participants who had undergone a haematopoietic stem cell transplant was calculated over the total number of participants in the ITT population. Percentages were also calculated based on whether the transplantation was the first, second, or subsequent transplant post IP administration.
Measure:Number of Participants Who Experienced Treatment Emergent Adverse Events (TEAE)
Time Frame:From the first dose of study drug until 28 days after the last dose of study drug; up to data cut off date of 31 December 2017; maximum duration of treatment was 12 weeks
Safety Issue:
Description:A TEAE was defined as any adverse event (AE) occurring or worsening on or after the first treatment of lenalidomide and within 28 days after the last dose. A serious AE = any AE which results in death; is life-threatening; requires inpatient hospitalization or prolongation of existing hospitalization; results in persistent or significant disability/incapacity; is a congenital anomaly/birth defect; constitutes an important medical event. The severity of AEs was graded based on National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), Version 4.3 and based on the following scale: Grade 1 = Mild Grade 2 = Moderate Grade 3 = Severe Grade 4 = Life threatening Grade 5 = Death.
Measure:Percentage of Participants With of Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD)
Time Frame:From the first dose of study drug to 28 days after the last dose of study drug; up to data cut off date of 31 December 2017; maximum treatment was 12 weeks
Safety Issue:
Description:Acute graft versus host disease generally occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It is a reaction of donor immune cells against host tissues. The 3 main tissues that acute GVHD affects are the skin, liver, and gastrointestinal tract. Chronic GVHD is scored per the National Institute of Health consensus conference grading system. Clinical manifestations of chronic GVHD include skin involvement resembling lichen planus or the cutaneous manifestations of scleroderma; dry oral mucosa with ulcerations and sclerosis of the gastrointestinal tract; and a rising serum bilirubin concentration.
Measure:Area Under the Plasma Concentration-time Curve From Time 0 to the Time of the Last Quantifiable Concentration of Lenalidomide (AUC-t)
Time Frame:Pharmacokinetic (PK) sampling was conducted after lenalidomide administration at Cycle 1 and was weight dependent at these timepoints: 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 hours. The 24 hour PK sample was taken prior to the lenalidomide dose on Day 2.
Safety Issue:
Description:Area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to the time of the last quantifiable concentration, calculated by linear trapezoidal method when concentrations were increasing and the logarithmic trapezoidal method when concentrations were decreasing.
Measure:Area Under the Plasma Concentration Time Curve From 0 Extrapolated to Infinity (AUC-inf, AUC0∞) Of Lenalidomide
Time Frame:Pharmacokinetic sampling was conducted after lenalidomide administration at Cycle 1 and was weight dependent at these timepoints: 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 hours. The 24 hour PK sample was taken prior to the lenalidomide dose on Day 2.
Safety Issue:
Description:Area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 extrapolated to infinity, calculated as [AUCt + Ct/ λz]. Ct is the last quantifiable concentration. No AUC extrapolation was performed with unreliable λz.
Measure:Maximum Observed Concentration (Cmax) of Lenalidomide
Time Frame:PK sampling was conducted after lenalidomide administration at Cycle 1 and was weight dependent at these timepoints: 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 hours. The 24 hour PK sample was taken prior to the lenalidomide dose on Day 2.
Safety Issue:
Description:Maximum observed plasma concentration, obtained directly from the observed concentration versus time data.
Measure:Time to Reach Maximum Concentration (Tmax) of Lenalidomide
Time Frame:Pk sampling was conducted after lenalidomide administration at Cycle 1 and was weight dependent at these timepoints: 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 hours. The 24 hour PK sample was taken prior to the lenalidomide dose on Day 2.
Safety Issue:
Description:Time to cmax was obtained directly from the observed concentration versus time data.
Measure:Terminal Half-Life (t1/2) of Lenalidomide
Time Frame:Pharmacokinetic sampling was conducted after lenalidomide administration at Cycle 1 and was weight dependent at these timepoints: 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 hours. The 24 hour PK sample was taken prior to the lenalidomide dose on Day 2.
Safety Issue:
Description:Terminal phase half-life in plasma, calculated as [(ln 2)/λz]. Terminal half-life was only calculated when a reliable estimate for λz could be obtained.
Measure:Apparent Total Clearance (CL/F) of Lenalidomide
Time Frame:Pharmacokinetic sampling was conducted after lenalidomide administration at Cycle 1 and was weight dependent at these timepoints: 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 hours. The 24 hour PK sample was taken prior to the lenalidomide dose on Day 2.
Safety Issue:
Description:Apparent volume of distribution, calculated as [(CL/F)/λz].
Measure:Apparent Volume of Distribution (Vz/F) of Lenalidomide
Time Frame:Pharmacokinetic sampling was conducted after lenalidomide administration at Cycle 1 and was weight dependent at these timepoints: 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 hours. The 24 hour PK sample was taken prior to the lenalidomide dose on Day 2.
Safety Issue:
Description:Apparent volume of distribution, calculated as [(CL/F)/λz].
Measure:Correlation of Peripheral White Blood Cell Count, Absolute Blast Count and Cytogenetics With Response to Lenalidomide
Time Frame:Not Performed
Safety Issue:
Description:Correlation of peripheral white blood cell count, absolute blast count and cytogenetics with response to lenalidomide was not performed since only 1 participant met the primary efficacy endpoint of morphological CR/CRi, and due to scarcity of relevant data, it was not practical or meaningful to analyze to perform the analysis on blood counts and response to lenalidomide.

Details

Phase:Phase 2
Primary Purpose:Interventional
Overall Status:Active, not recruiting
Lead Sponsor:Celgene

Trial Keywords

  • Lenalidomide
  • Revlimid
  • Pediatric
  • Relapsed or Refractory
  • Acute Myeloid Leukemia
  • Leukemia

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