This pilot phase II trial studies whether biomarkers (biological molecules) in bone marrow
samples can predict treatment response to sirolimus and chemotherapy (mitoxantrone
hydrochloride, etoposide, and cytarabine [MEC]) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML)
that is likely to come back or spread (high-risk). Sirolimus inhibits or blocks the pathway
that causes cancer cells to grow. Adding sirolimus to standard chemotherapy may help improve
patient response. Studying samples of bone marrow from patients treated with sirolimus in the
laboratory may help doctors learn whether sirolimus reverses or turns off that pathway and
whether changes in biomarker levels can predict how well patients will respond to treatment.
I. To test the association between biochemical response and clinical response.
I. To estimate complete response rate of sirolimus MEC in patients with high risk AML.
II. To estimate progression free survival in this patient population. III. To collect further
information on the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of sirolimus in combination with MEC in
patients with relapsed or refractory myeloid malignancies.
Patients undergo collection of bone marrow samples prior to sirolimus dosing on day 4 and
within 1 week and no later than day 45 of hematologic recovery. Patients receive sirolimus
orally (PO) on days 2-9 (loading dose on day 1 only), and standard MEC chemotherapy
comprising mitoxantrone hydrochloride intravenously (IV) over 15 minutes, etoposide IV over 1
hour, and cytarabine IV over 1 hour every 24 hours on day 4-8.
After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up every 3 months for 2 years.
1. Patients must have histologic evidence of high risk acute myeloid leukemia defined as
one of the following:
1. Primary refractory non-M3 AML
- Residual leukemia after a minimum of 2 prior courses of chemotherapy (Same
- Evidence of leukemia recurrence after a nadir bone marrow biopsy
demonstrates no evidence of residual leukemia.
- Evidence of leukemia after induction therapy which, in the opinion of the
investigator, would be appropriate for reinduction with sirolimus/MEC
2. Relapsed non-M3 AML
3. Previously untreated non-M3 AML age >60 with no evidence of favorable karyotype
defined by presence of t(8;21)(q22;q22) [AML1-ETO], inv16(p13;q22), or
t(16;16)(p13;q22) [CBFβ;MYH11] by cytogenetics, FISH, or RT-PCR
4. Previously untreated secondary AML (from antecedent hematologic malignancy or
following therapy with radiation or chemotherapy for another disease) with no
evidence of favorable karyotype defined by presence of t(8;21)(q22;q22)
[AML1-ETO], inv16(p13;q22), or t(16;16)(p13;q22) [CBFβ;MYH11] by cytogenetics,
FISH, or RT-PCR
2. Subjects must be ≥ 18 years of age.
3. Subjects must have an ECOG performance status of 2 or less (see Appendix1).
4. Subjects must have a life expectancy of at least 4 weeks.
5. Subjects must be able to consume oral medication.
6. Subjects must have recovered from the toxic effects of any prior chemotherapy to <
Grade 1 (except alopecia).
7. Required initial laboratory values:
1. Creatinine ≤ 2.0mg/dL
2. total or direct bilirubin ≤ 1.5mg/dL; SGPT (ALT) ≤ 3xULN
3. negative pregnancy test for women with child-bearing potential.
8. Patients must be able to sign consent and be willing and able to comply with scheduled
visits, treatment plan and laboratory testing.
9. Subjects must have a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of ≥ 45%.
1. Subjects with FAB M3 (t (15; 17) (q22; q21) [PML-RARα]) are not eligible.
2. Subjects must not be receiving any chemotherapy agents (except Hydroxyurea).
a) Intrathecal methotrexate and cytarabine are permissible.
3. Subjects must not be receiving growth factors, except for erythropoietin.
4. Subjects with a "currently active" second malignancy, other than non-melanoma skin
cancers are not eligible.
5. Subjects with uncontrolled high blood pressure, unstable angina, symptomatic
congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction within the past 6 months or serious
uncontrolled cardiac arrhythmia are not eligible.
6. Subjects taking the following are not eligible:
1. Carbamazepine (e.g., Tegretol)
2. Rifabutin (e.g., Mycobutin) or
3. Rifampin (e.g., Rifadin)
4. Rifapentine (e.g., Priftin)
5. St. John's wort
6. Clarithromycin (e.g., Biaxin)
7. Cyclosporine (e.g. Neoral or Sandimmune)
8. Diltiazem (e.g., Cardizem)
9. Erythromycin (e.g., Akne-Mycin, Ery-Tab)
10. Itraconazole (e.g., Sporanox)
11. Ketoconazole (e.g., Nizoral)
12. Telithromycin (e.g., Ketek)
13. Verapamil (e.g., Calan SR, Isoptin, Verelan)
14. Voriconazole (e.g., VFEND)
15. Tacrolimus (e.g. Prograf) Subjects taking fluconozole, voriconizole,
itraconazole, posaconazole, and ketokonazole within 72 hours of study drug
starting are not eligible. Reinstitution of fluconozole, voriconizole,
itraconazole, posaconazole, ketokonazole and diltiazem is permissible 72 hours
after the last dose of sirolimus.