This research study is evaluating an immune modulatory agent as a possible treatment for
patients with Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP) with significant disease involving
the larynx, trachea, and/or lungs. The investigators will be using Pembrolizumab as the
This research study is a Phase II clinical trial. Phase II clinical trials test the safety
and effectiveness of an investigational intervention to learn whether the intervention works
in treating a specific disease. The FDA (the U.S. Food and Drug Administration) has not
approved Pembrolizumab for your specific disease but it has been approved for other uses.
Pembrolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody. Pembrolizumab is being studied in several
other clinical trials to see if it has an effect in helping the immune system to recognize
and eliminate abnormal cells in the body. The antibody blocks a receptor expressed on immune
cells, called T cells, and by blocking this receptor it has the potential to activate the T
cells to kill abnormal cells, such as virally infected cells.
In this research study, the investigators are looking at whether Pembrolizumab can restore
the natural ability of the immune system to recognize and eliminate Human papillomavirus
(HPV)-infected cells from the body.
- Be willing and able to provide written informed consent for the trial.
- Be 12 years of age on day of signing informed consent.
- Have histologically confirmed diagnosis of RRP that involves the trachea, lungs,
and/or larynx. The latter of which has required 3 or more surgeries within a year to
remove the lesions from their larynx. Subjects must have evaluable disease either
based on RECIST 1.1 and/or endoscopic parameters, as discussed above.
- Be required to provide tissue from a newly obtained biopsy of a tumor lesion.
Newly-obtained is defined as a specimen obtained up to 6 weeks (42 days) prior to
study registration. Subjects for whom newly-obtained samples cannot be provided (e.g.
inaccessible or subject safety concern) may submit an archived specimen only upon
agreement from PI.
- Have confirmed human papillomavirus-associated lesions based on in-situ hybridization
testing and/or polymerase chain reaction which may be performed on a newly obtained
biopsy or archived sample.
- Have a performance status of 0 or 1 on the ECOG Performance Scale.
- Demonstrate adequate organ function as defined in Table 1, all screening labs should
be performed within 10 days of study registration System Laboratory Value
- Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≥1,500 /mcL
- Platelets ≥100,000 / mcL
- Hemoglobin ≥9 g/dL or ≥5.6 mmol/L without transfusion or EPO dependency
(within 7 days of assessment)
- Serum creatinine OR Measured or calculated creatinine clearance ≤1.5 X upper
limit of normal (ULN) OR
- (GFR can also be used in place of creatinine or CrCl) ≥60 mL/min for subject
with creatinine levels > 1.5 X institutional ULN
- Serum total bilirubin ≤ 1.5 X ULN OR Direct bilirubin ≤ ULN for subjects
with total bilirubin levels > 1.5 ULN
- AST (SGOT) and ALT (SGPT) ≤ 2.5 X ULN OR ≤ 5 X ULN for subjects with liver
- Albumin >2.5 mg/dL
- International Normalized Ratio (INR) or Prothrombin Time (PT)≤1.5 X ULN
unless subject is receiving anticoagulant therapy as long as PT or PTT is
within therapeutic range of intended use of anticoagulants.
- Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT) ≤1.5 X ULN unless subject is
receiving anticoagulant therapy as long as PT or PTT is within therapeutic
range of intended use of anticoagulants.
- Creatinine clearance should be calculated per institutional standard.
- Female subject of childbearing potential should have a negative urine or serum
pregnancy within 72 hours prior to receiving any dose of study medication. If the
urine test is positive or cannot be confirmed as negative, a serum pregnancy test will
- Female subjects of childbearing potential should be willing to use 2 methods of birth
control or be surgically sterile, or abstain from heterosexual activity for the course
of the study through 120 days after the last dose of study medication (Reference
Section 5.7.2). Subjects of childbearing potential are those who have not been
surgically sterilized or have not been free from menses for > 1 year. The methods of
surgical sterilization include having had a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus),
bilateral oophorectomy (removal of both ovaries), tubal ligation (having your tubes
tied), and transvaginal occlusion (blocking the tubes with a coil).
- Male subjects should agree to use an adequate method of contraception starting with
the first dose of study therapy through 120 days after the last dose of study therapy
- Is currently participating and receiving study therapy or has participated in a study
of an investigational agent and received study therapy or used an investigational
device within 4 weeks of the first dose of treatment.
- Has a diagnosis of immunodeficiency or is receiving systemic steroid therapy or any
other form of immunosuppressive therapy within 7 days prior to study registration.
- Has a known history of active TB (Bacillus Tuberculosis)
- Hypersensitivity to pembrolizumab or any of its excipients.
- Has had a prior anti-cancer monoclonal antibody (mAb) within 4 weeks prior to study
registration or who has not recovered (i.e., ≤ Grade 1 or at baseline) from adverse
events due to agents administered more than 4 weeks earlier.
- Has had prior chemotherapy, targeted small molecule therapy, or radiation therapy
within 2 weeks prior to study registration or who has not recovered (i.e., ≤ Grade 1
or at baseline) from adverse events due to a previously administered agent.
--Note: Subjects with ≤ Grade 2 neuropathy are an exception to this criterion and may
qualify for the study.
- Recovery from effects of any major surgery or significant traumatic injury at least 28
days before the first dose of study treatment. Endoscopic debridement of RRP lesions
is NOT considered a major surgery
- No known diagnosis of invasive squamous cell carcinoma within the previous 2 years.
- Patients with invasive squamous cell carcinoma derived from their RRP who are not
considered appropriate for surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy by their
treating oncology team may be considered eligible for the study.
- Has active autoimmune disease that has required systemic treatment in the past 2 years
(i.e. with use of disease modifying agents, corticosteroids or immunosuppressive
drugs). Replacement therapy (eg., thyroxine, insulin, or physiologic corticosteroid
replacement therapy for adrenal or pituitary insufficiency, etc.) is not considered a
form of systemic treatment.
- Has known history of, or any evidence of active, non-infectious pneumonitis.
- Has an active infection requiring systemic therapy.
- Has a history or current evidence of any condition, therapy, or laboratory abnormality
that might confound the results of the trial, interfere with the subject's
participation for the full duration of the trial, or is not in the best interest of
the subject to participate, in the opinion of the treating investigator.
- Has known psychiatric or substance abuse disorders that would interfere with
cooperation with the requirements of the trial.
- Is pregnant or breastfeeding, or expecting to conceive or father children within the
projected duration of the trial, starting with the pre-screening or screening visit
through 120 days after the last dose of trial treatment.
- Has received prior therapy with an anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, or anti-PD-L2 agent.
- Has a known history of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (HIV 1/2 antibodies).
- Has known active Hepatitis B (e.g., HBsAg reactive) or Hepatitis C (e.g., HCV RNA
[qualitative] is detected).
- Has received a live vaccine within 30 days of planned start of study therapy. --Note:
Seasonal influenza vaccines for injection are generally inactivated flu vaccines and
are allowed; however intranasal influenza vaccines (e.g., Flu-Mist®) are live
attenuated vaccines, and are not allowed.