The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of subcutaneous azacitidine
in combination with durvalumab as compared with subcutaneous azacitidine alone in adults with
previously untreated, higher risk MDS who are not eligible for HSCT or in adults ≥ 65 years
old with previously untreated AML who are not eligible for HSCT, with intermediate or poor
For both cohorts:
1. Subject must understand and voluntarily sign an informed consent form (ICF) prior to
any study-related assessments/procedures being conducted.
2. Have an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0, 1, or 2.
3. Female subjects of childbearing potential may participate, providing they meet the
1. Have 2 negative pregnancy tests as verified by the Investigator prior to starting
any investigational product (IP) therapy: serum pregnancy test at screening and
negative serum or urine pregnancy test (Investigator's discretion) within 72
hours prior to starting treatment with IP (Cycle 1, Day 1). They must agree to
ongoing pregnancy testing during the course of the study (before beginning each
subsequent cycle of treatment), and after the last dose of any IP. This applies
even if the subject practices complete abstinence from heterosexual contact.
2. Agree to practice true abstinence (which must be reviewed on a monthly basis and
source documented) or agree to the use of a highly effective method of
contraception use from 28 days prior to starting durvalumab or azacitidine, and
must agree to continue using such precautions while taking durvalumab or
azacitidine (including dose interruptions) and up to 90 days after the last dose
of durvalumab or azacitidine. Cessation of contraception after this point should
be discussed with a responsible physician.
3. Agree to abstain from breastfeeding during study participation and for at least
90 days after the last dose of IP.
4. Refrain from egg cell donation while taking durvalumab and for at least 90 days
after the last dose of durvalumab.
4. Male subject must:
1. Either practice true abstinence from heterosexual contact (which must be reviewed
on a monthly basis) or agree to avoid fathering a child, to use highly effective
methods of contraception, male condom plus spermicide during sexual contact with
a pregnant female or a female of childbearing potential (even if he has undergone
a successful vasectomy) from starting dose of IP (Cycle 1 Day 1), including dose
interruptions through 90 days after receipt of the last dose of durvalumab or
2. Refrain from semen or sperm donation while taking IP and for at least 90 days
after the last dose of IP.
5. Understand and voluntarily sign a biomarker-specific component of the informed consent
form prior to any study-related procedures conducted.
6. Willing and able to adhere to the study visit schedule and other protocol
7. Age ≥ 18 years at the time of signing the informed consent form.
8. Central confirmation of diagnosis of previously untreated primary or secondary
myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) as per World Health Organization (WHO) classification.
Results of central pathology review are required prior to receiving the first dose of
9. Central confirmation of the categorization of the MDS risk classification, as per the
Revised - International prognostic scoring system (IPSS-R) Intermediate risk with >10%
blasts or poor or very poor cytogenetics, or IPSS-R High or Very High risk (results of
central pathology review required prior to receiving the first dose of IP).
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) Cohort:
10. Age ≥ 65 years at the time of signing the informed consent form (ICF).
11. Central confirmation of diagnosis of one of the following untreated AML as per WHO
- Newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed de novo AML (bone marrow blasts ≥ 20%),
- AML secondary to prior MDS, or
- AML secondary to exposure to potentially leukemogenic therapies or agents (eg,
radiation therapy, alkylating agents, topoisomerase II inhibitors) with the
primary malignancy in remission for at least 2 years.
12. Central confirmation of intermediate or poor risk status, based on Cytogenetics for
acute myeloid leukemia.
For both cohorts:
1. Prior hematopoietic stem cell transplant.
2. Considered eligible for hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allogeneic or autologous)
at the time of signing the ICF.
3. Prior exposure to azacitidine, decitabine or prior exposure to the investigational
oral formulation of decitabine, or other oral azacitidine derivative.
4. Inaspirable bone marrow.
5. Use of any of the following within 28 days prior to the first dose of IP:
- Thrombopoiesis-stimulating agents (eg, romiplostim, eltrombopag, Interleukin-11)
- Any hematopoietic growth factors (erythropoietin-stimulating agents [ESAs],
granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and other red blood cell (RBC)
hematopoietic growth factors (eg, Interleukin-3)
- Any investigational agents within 28 days or 5 half-lives (whichever is longer)
of initiating study treatment
6. Prior history of malignancies (except MDS for AML subjects), unless the subject has
been free of the disease for ≥ 2 years. However, subjects with the following
history/concurrent conditions are allowed:
- Basal or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin
- Carcinoma in situ of the cervix
- Carcinoma in situ of the breast
- Incidental histologic finding of prostate cancer (T1a or T1b using the tumor,
nodes, metastasis [tumor, node, metastases (TNM)] clinical staging system).
7. Pregnant or breast-feeding females or females who intend to become pregnant during
8. Subject has active or prior documented autoimmune or inflammatory disorders (including
inflammatory bowel disease [eg, colitis, Crohn's disease], diverticulitis with the
exception of a prior episode that has resolved or diverticulosis, celiac disease,
irritable bowel disease [exclude only if active within the last 6 months prior to
signing the ICF], or other serious gastrointestinal chronic conditions associated with
diarrhea; systemic lupus erythematosus; Wegener's syndrome [granulomatosis with
polyangiitis]; myasthenia gravis; Graves' disease; rheumatoid arthritis; hypophysitis,
uveitis; etc) within the past 3 years prior to the start of treatment. The following
are exceptions to this criterion:
- Subjects with vitiligo or alopecia;
- Subjects with hypothyroidism (eg, following Hashimoto syndrome) stable on hormone
replacement for ≥ 3 months prior to signing the ICF; or
- Subjects with psoriasis not requiring systemic treatment
9. Significant active cardiac disease within the previous 6 months prior to signing the
- New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III or IV congestive heart failure;
- Unstable angina or angina requiring surgical or medical intervention; and/or
- Significant cardiac arrhythmia
- Myocardial infarction
10. Uncontrolled intercurrent illness including, but not limited to, ongoing or active
systemic fungal, bacterial, or viral infection (defined as ongoing signs/symptoms
related to the infection without improvement despite appropriate antibiotics or other
treatment), uncontrolled hypertension, cardiac arrhythmia, pneumonitis, interstitial
lung disease, active peptic ulcer disease or gastritis that would limit compliance
with study requirement.
11. Known human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis C (HCV) infection, or evidence
of active hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.
12. Known or suspected hypersensitivity to azacitidine, mannitol, or durvalumab, its
constituents, or to any other humanized monoclonal antibody.
13. Any significant medical condition, laboratory abnormality, or psychiatric illness that
would prevent the subject from participating in the study.
14. Any condition including the presence of laboratory abnormalities, which places the
subject at unacceptable risk if he/she were to participate in the study.
15. Prior anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), programmed death-1
(PD-1), or programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) or other immune checkpoint mAb exposure.
16. Other investigational monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) within 6 months prior to first dose
17. Current or prior use of immunosuppressive medication within 14 days prior to the first
dose of IP. The following are exceptions to this criterion:
- Intranasal, inhaled, topical, or local steroid injections (eg, intra-articular
- Systemic corticosteroids at physiologic doses not to exceed 10 mg/day of
prednisone or equivalent
- Steroids as premedication for hypersensitivity reactions (eg, computed tomography
[CT] scan premedication)
18. History of primary immunodeficiency.
19. Receipt of live, attenuated vaccine within 30 days prior to the first dose of IP
(NOTE: Subjects, if enrolled, should not receive live vaccine during the study and for
30 days after the last dose of durvalumab).
20. Unwilling or unable to complete subject reported outcome assessments without
assistance or with minimal assistance from trained site personnel and/or caregiver.
21. Subjects who have had clinical evidence of central nervous system (CNS) or pulmonary
leukostasis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, or CNS leukemia.
22. Presence of advanced malignant hepatic tumors.
23. Any of the following laboratory abnormalities:
- Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST/SGOT) or alanine aminotransferase
(ALT/SGPT) > 2.5 × upper limit of normal (ULN)
- Serum total bilirubin > 1.5 × ULN. Higher levels are acceptable if these can be
attributed to active red blood cell precursor destruction within the bone marrow
(ie, ineffective erythropoiesis). Subjects are excluded if there is evidence of
autoimmune hemolytic anemia manifested as a corrected reticulocyte count of > 2%
with either a positive Coombs' test or over 50% of indirect bilirubin
- Serum creatinine > 2.5 × ULN.
24. Any previous cytotoxic, cytostatic, hormonal, biological or immunological treatment
for MDS (ESA with or without G-CSF are allowed under certain conditions, see exclusion
criterion # 5).
25. Any investigational therapy within 28 days prior to the first dose of IP.
26. Use of hydroxyurea within 2 weeks prior to obtaining the screening hematology sample
and prior to first dose of IP.
27. Absolute white blood cell (WBC) count ≥ 15 × 10^9/L.
28. Previous cytotoxic, cytostatic, hormonal, biological or immunological treatment (ESA
with or without G-CSF and iron chelating therapy and hydroxyurea are allowed under
certain conditions, see exclusion criterion #5) or biologic treatment for AML.
29. Any investigational therapy within 28 days prior to the first dose of IP.
30. Use of hydroxyurea within 2 weeks prior to obtaining the screening hematology sample
and prior to first dose of IP.
31. Prior use of targeted therapy agents (eg, FLT3 inhibitors, other kinase inhibitors).
32. Suspected or proven acute promyelocytic leukemia (French-American-British (FAB) M3)
based on morphology, immunophenotype, molecular assay, or karyotype; AML associated
with t(9;22) karyotype, biphenotypic acute leukemia or AML with previous hematologic
disorder such as chronic myelogenous leukemia or myeloproliferative neoplasms.
33. Acute myeloid leukemia associated with inv(16), t(8;21), t(16;16), t(15;17) karyotypes
or molecular evidence of such translocations if not associated with a c-Kit mutation.
34. Absolute WBC count ≥ 15 × 10^⁹/L (NOTE: Hydroxyurea is not allowed to attain a WBC
count ≤ 15 x 10⁹/L).
35. Known history or presence of Sweet Syndrome at screening