The purpose of this study is to test how safe and effective treatment with the combination of
Avelumab and radiation is for IDH mutant gliomas that have transformed to glioblastoma after
1. Male or female subjects aged ≥18 years.
2. Documentation of IDH1 or IDH2 mutation in any tumor specimen.
3. Pathologic evidence (either diagnostic pathology slides or pathology report) of a
diagnosis of WHO grade II or III glioma prior to treatment with temozolomide or PCV
4. Histopathological evidence of glioblastoma (WHO grade IV) on a progressive tumor
specimen after treatment with temozolomide or PCV chemotherapy. The diagnosis of
glioblastoma must be confirmed on central review by a study-designated
neuropathologist at NYULMC at screening.
Exceptions to this eligibility include the following:
a. Any progressive glioma with IDH1 or IDH2 mutation, regardless of WHO grade,
histopathological diagnosis, or prior therapy, will be eligible if the progressive tumor
specimen is found to have one of the genetic alterations below:
1. ≥20 somatic mutations per Mb by whole-exome sequencing
2. High mutation burden or microsatellite instability (MSI) identified by Foundation
Medicine panel next-generation sequencing (FoundationOne®, FoundationOne CDx™).
Foundation Medicine's threshold for high mutation burden (HMB) in their panel NGS
assays is ≥20 somatic mutations per Mb. Foundation Medicine's panel NGS assay has been
validated by whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing to correlate tightly with tumor
mutation burden (R2 = 0.94).96
3. Mutation in a mismatch repair gene or other genes known to be associated with
hypermutator phenotypes or microsatellite instability, including but not limited to
MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, POLE, PMS2, POLD as determined by validated methods.
4. Microsatellite instability as identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or other
b. Progressive oligodendroglioma (with 1p/19q codeletion) that has hallmark
histopathological features of glioblastoma (i.e. necrosis, pseudopalisading necrosis,
or microvascular proliferation) is eligible as IDH1/2 mutant, 1p/19q codeleted
oligodendrogliomas that have progressed after chemotherapy have been shown to develop
5. Availability of a paraffin-embedded or frozen tumor-tissue block with a minimum of 1
cm2 of tumor surface area from a tissue specimen that demonstrates pathological
transformation to glioblastoma (WHO grade IV) or a progressive specimen that harbors
one of the genetic alterations specified in Inclusion Criteria 4a. a. If a tumor block
cannot be submitted, then 20 unstained slides (preferably 10 slides from two different
tumor blocks from the same surgery) from the tumor specimen must be submitted.
6. Patients must have had treatment with temozolomide, lomustine (CCNU) or PCV
[procarbazine, lomustine (CCNU), vincristine] chemotherapy prior to histopathologic
transformation to glioblastoma or prior to identification of one of the genetic
alterations specified in Inclusion
Criteria 4a. Notes or records from the treating oncologist are required for documentation
of treatment history. Prior treatment with at least one of the following chemotherapy
schedules is required to be eligible:
1. At least one 6 week course of continuous daily temozolomide
2. At least six 28-day cycles given in one of the following schedules:
1. Daily for 5 days of a 28-day cycle
2. Daily for 21 days of a 28-day cycle
3. Daily for 14 days of a 28-day cycle
4. Alternating 7 days on/7 days per 28-day cycle
5. Continuous daily dosing of a 28-day cycle.
3. Other schedules of temozolomide may be considered after discussion with the overall
4. At least 3 cycles of PCV or lomustine (CCNU) chemotherapy. 7. Patients who received
anti-tumor therapy after histopathologic transformation to glioblastoma must have
shown unequivocal radiographic evidence of tumor progression by contrast-enhanced MRI
scan (or CT scan if MRI is contraindicated).
8. Patients must have had prior CNS radiotherapy for their glioma, including standard
doses for lowgrade or high-grade glioma as well as non-standard dose and
fractionation, including hypofractionated regimens, stereotactic radiosurgery, etc.
9. Patients can have had any number of prior therapies, including but not limited to
molecularly targeted therapies and anti-angiogenic therapies, however they must have
had prior chemotherapy with either temozolomide or lomustine as per Eligibility
10. Karnofsky performance status of ≥60. 11. Interval of at least 6 months from the
completion of any prior radiotherapy and registration. If patients have not passed an
interval of at least 6 months, they may still be eligible if they meet one or more of
the following criteria:
a. New areas of tumor outside the original radiotherapy fields as determined by the
investigator, or b. Histologic confirmation of tumor through biopsy or resection, or c.
Nuclear medicine imaging, MR spectroscopy, or MR perfusion imaging consistent with true
progressive disease, rather than pseudoprogression or radiation necrosis obtained within 28
days of registration AND an interval of at least 90 days between completion of radiotherapy
12. The following time periods must have elapsed prior to start of study treatment, the
following time periods must have elapsed:
1. 5 half-lives from any investigational agent
2. 4 weeks from cytotoxic therapy (except 23 days for temozolomide and 6 weeks from
3. 6 weeks from antibodies
4. Prior treatment with other immune modulating agents within fewer than 4 weeks prior to
the first dose of Avelumab. 1. Examples of immune modulating agents include blockers
of CTLA-4, 4-1BB (CD137), OX-40, therapeutic vaccines, or cytokine treatments.
5. 4 weeks (or 5 half-lives, whichever is shorter) from other anti-tumor therapies.
13. An interval of at least 2 weeks (to start of study agent) between prior surgical
resection or one week for stereotactic biopsy.
14. Adequate hematologic, hepatic, and renal function defined by absolute neutrophil
count ≥1.5 x 109/L, hemoglobin >9 g/dL, platelet count ≥ 100 x 109/L (may have been
transfused), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ≤2.5
x upper limit of normal (ULN), total bilirubin ≤1.5 x ULN, and estimated creatinine
clearance (CrCl) ≥ 30 mL/min according to the Cockcroft-Gault formula or local
institutional standard method.
15. Women of child-bearing potential (WOCBP) and men able to father a child must agree
to use highly effective contraception while on study drug and for 30 days after the
last dose of Avelumab. WOCBP must have a negative pregnancy test within 28 days of
initiation of dosing.
Highly effective contraceptive measures include: stable use of oral contraceptives such as
combined estrogen and progestogen and progestogen only hormonal contraception or other
prescription pharmaceutical contraceptives for 2 or more menstrual cycles prior to
screening; intrauterine device [IUD]; intrauterine hormone-releasing system (IUS);
bilateral tubal ligation; vasectomy and sexual abstinence.
1. Contraception is not required for men with documented vasectomy.
2. Postmenopausal women must be amenorrheic for at least 12 months in order not to be
considered of childbearing potential.
3. Pregnancy testing and contraception are not required for women with documented
hysterectomy or tubal ligation.
16. Willing to and capable of providing written informed consent prior to any study
17. Ability and willingness to comply with all study requirements, including scheduled
visits, treatment plans, laboratory tests, and other study-related procedures.
1. Investigational drug use within 28 days of the first dose of Avelumab.
2. Planned participation in another study of an investigational agent or investigational
device or use of a therapeutic device intended for therapy of glioma.
3. Prior therapy with an agent that blocks the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway.
4. Primary brainstem or spinal cord tumor.
5. Diffuse leptomeningeal disease at recurrence
6. Recurrent infratentorial tumor
7. Prior re-irradiation or stereotactic radiosurgery for recurrent disease at the same
tumor location intended for HFRT in this study.
8. Maximal tumor diameter >4 cm
9. Patients with evidence of significant intracranial mass effect that requires >4 mg of
dexamethasone or bioequivalent per day for 5 consecutive days for management of
symptoms at any time within 14 days of registration.
1. Subjects on a standard high-dose steroid taper after craniotomy may receive a
higher dose of corticosteroids within 14 days of registration, however must be at
a dose ≤4 mg of dexamethasone or bioequivalent per day within 5 days prior to
2. Administration of steroids through a route known to result in a minimal systemic
exposure [i.e., intranasal, intraocular, inhaled, topical, or local injection
(e.g., intra-articular injection) corticosteroids (<5% of body surface area)] are
3. Subjects requiring hormone replacement with corticosteroids are eligible if the
steroids are at doses ≤ 10 mg prednisone or bioequivalent per day.
4. Steroids as premedication for hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., CT scan
premedication) are allowed.
10. Active autoimmune disease that might deteriorate when receiving an immuno-stimulatory
agent. The following are not exclusions:
a. Patients with diabetes type I, vitiligo, hypo- or hyperthyroid diseases, or
psoriasis not requiring systemic immunosuppressive treatment are eligible.
11. Prior organ transplantation, including allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
12. Known history of, or any evidence of active, non-infectious pneumonitis within the
last 5 years.
13. Known prior, severe hypersensitivity (NCI-CTCAE v4.03 Grade 3 or 4) to investigational
product or any component in its formulations including known severe hypersensitivity
reactions to monoclonal antibodies, any history of anaphylaxis, or uncontrolled asthma
(that is, 3 or more features of partially controlled asthma).
14. Active infection requiring systemic therapy.
15. Known history of testing positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or known
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
16. Positive test for Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBV sAg) or hepatitis C virus
(HCV antibody) at screening indicating acute or chronic infection.
17. Vaccination within 4 weeks of the first dose of avelumab and while on trials is
prohibited except for administration of inactivated vaccines. Note: Seasonal influenza
vaccines for injection are generally inactivated flu vaccines and are allowed; however
intranasal influenza vaccines (e.g., Flu-Mist®) are live attenuated vaccines, and are
18. Clinically significant (i.e., active) cardiovascular disease: cerebral vascular
accident/stroke (< 6 months prior to enrollment), myocardial infarction (< 6 months
prior to enrollment), unstable angina, congestive heart failure (≥ New York Heart
Association Classification Class II), or serious cardiac arrhythmia requiring
19. Persisting toxicity related to prior therapy of Grade >1 NCI-CTCAE v 4.03; however,
alopecia and sensory neuropathy Grade ≤ 2, or other Grade ≤ 2 not constituting a
safety risk based on investigator's judgment, are acceptable.
20. Patients with another active cancer [excluding basal cell carcinoma, cervical
carcinoma in situ or melanoma in situ]. Prior history of other cancer is allowed, as
long as there was no active disease within the prior 2 years.
21. Pregnant or breastfeeding (negative serum or urine pregnancy test required for women
of childbearing potential), or unable to maintain use of contraception while on study
and for 30 days after the last dose of Avelumab.
22. Known alcohol or drug abuse
23. All other unstable, severe, or chronic medical conditions including immune colitis,
inflammatory bowel disease, immune pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis or psychiatric
conditions including recent (within the past year) or active suicidal ideation or
behavior; or laboratory abnormalities that may increase the risk associated with study
participation or study treatment administration or may interfere with the
interpretation of study results and, in the judgment of the investigator, would make
the patient inappropriate for entry into this study.
24. Any condition that would prohibit the understanding or rendering of informed consent.