- To describe any antitumor activity of avelumab monotherapy, as measured by the response
rate in patients with advanced or metastatic small intestinal adenocarcinoma.
- To describe the safety profile of avelumab monotherapy in patients with advanced or
metastatic small intestinal adenocarcinoma.
- To determine overall survival, progression-free survival, and duration of response of
avelumab monotherapy in patients with advanced small intestinal adenocarcinoma.
- To evaluate the association of tumor PD-L1 and PD-1 expression, MSI status, lymphocytic
infiltration, and somatic mutation burden with response.
- Signed and dated written informed consent.
- Male or female ≥ 18 years of age.
- Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0 or 1.
- Histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the small intestine that is advanced (not
amenable to surgery) or metastatic (clinical stage IV). Note: Tumors such as ampullary
carcinoma or duodenal cancer having intestinal features upon pathological examination
- At least one prior systemic treatment (including neoadjuvant therapy) for
adenocarcinoma of the small intestine, with intolerance to prior therapy, failure of
the most recent therapy (of any line) or recurrent disease.
- At least one measurable lesion as defined by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid
Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1 criteria that has not been previously irradiated and which
can be followed by CT or MRI.
- Adequate organ function including:
- Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≥ 1.5 × 109/L
- Platelets ≥ 100 × 109/L
- Hemoglobin ≥ 9/g/dL (may have been transfused)
- Total serum bilirubin ≤ 1.5 times upper limit of normal (ULN)
- Aspartate aminotransferase (AST/SGOT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT/SGPT) ≤
2.5 × ULN (or ≤ 5 × ULN if liver metastases are present)
- Serum creatinine ≤ 1.5 x ULN or estimated creatinine clearance ≥ 30 mL/min as
calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) equation
- Archival tissue [paraffin block(s) or unstained slides from paraffin block(s)] from
the primary tumor and/or a metastatic site judged reasonably available prior to
initiating treatment, or willingness to undergo fresh pre-treatment tumor biopsy.
(Prior to initiating treatment, the screening team must have documentation that an
archival or fresh tumor specimen has been requested from a local or outside facility.
However, physical possession of requested tissue or waiting for histological analysis
or confirmation that an acquired specimen contains tumor tissue sufficient for
analysis is not a requirement prior to initiating treatment.) If no archival tissue is
available and patient consents to a fresh biopsy, but the patient's lesion is deemed
inaccessible to safe biopsy, the patient will be allowed to enroll if otherwise
- Female patients of childbearing potential and male patients able to father children
who have female partners of childbearing potential must agree to use one highly
effective method (defined as less than 1% failure rate per year) and one additional
effective method of contraception (Appendix 4) from 15 days prior to first trial
treatment administration until at least 60 days after study participant's final dose
- Females of childbearing potential are defined as those who are not surgically
sterile or post-menopausal (i.e. patient has not had a bilateral tubal ligation,
a bilateral oophorectomy, or a complete hysterectomy; or has not been amenorrheic
for 12 months without an alternative medical cause). Post-menopausal status in
females under 55 years of age should be confirmed with a serum
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level within laboratory reference range for
- Male patients able to father children are defined as those who are not surgically
sterile (i.e. patient has not had a vasectomy).
- Serum pregnancy test (for females of childbearing potential) negative at screening.
- Re-enrollment of a subject that has discontinued the study as a pre-treatment screen
failure (i.e. a consented patient who did not receive avelumab) is permitted. If
re-enrolled, the subject must be re-consented. Only the screening procedures performed
outside of protocol-specified timing must be repeated.
- Prior therapy with antibody or drug specifically targeting T cell regulatory proteins,
including but not limited to: Prior immunotherapy with IL-2 or IFN-α, or an anti-PD-1
(including nivolumab), anti-PD-L1, anti-PD-L2, anti-CD137, or anti-cytotoxic
T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) antibody (including ipilimumab), or any
other antibody or drug specifically targeting T-cell co-stimulation or checkpoint
- Within 28 days before first dose of avelumab: Anti-cancer treatment, major surgery
requiring general anesthesia, or the use of any investigational agent.
- Within 14 days before first dose of avelumab: Therapeutic or palliative radiation
therapy. (Subjects receiving bisphosphonate or denosumab are eligible provided
treatment was initiated at least 14 days before the first dose of avelumab.)
- Current use of immunosuppressive medication, except the following:
- Subjects are permitted the use of corticosteroids with minimal systemic
absorption (e.g. topical, ocular, intra-articular, intranasal, and inhaled);
- Systemic corticosteroids at physiologic doses ≤10 mg/day of prednisone or
equivalent are permitted;
- A brief (less than 3 weeks) course of corticosteroids for prophylaxis (e.g. CT
scan premedication against contrast dye allergy) or for treatment of
non-autoimmune conditions (e.g. delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction caused by
a contact allergen) is permitted.
- Previous malignant disease other than adenocarcinoma of the small intestine within the
last 5 years, with the exception of basal or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin or
cervical carcinoma in situ considered curatively treated (i.e. complete remission
achieved at least 2 years prior to first dose of avelumab AND additional therapy not
required while receiving study treatment).
- All subjects with brain metastases, expect those meeting the following criteria:
- Brain metastases that have been treated locally and are clinically stable for at
least 2 weeks prior to enrollment
- No ongoing neurological symptoms that are related to the brain localization of
the disease (sequelae that are a consequence of the treatment of the brain
metastases are acceptable.
- Subjects must be either off steroids or on a stable or decreasing dose of ≤ 10 mg
daily prednisone (or equivalent)
- Receipt of any organ transplantation including allogeneic stem-cell transplantation.
- Significant acute or chronic infections requiring systemic therapy.
- Known history of testing positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
- Hepatitis B virus (HBV) or Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection at screening
(positive HBV surface antigen or HCV RNA if anti-HCV antibody screening test
- Active autoimmune disease with reasonable possibility of clinically significant
deterioration when receiving an immunostimulatory agent:
- Subjects with Type 1 diabetes mellitus, vitiligo, psoriasis, hypo- or
hyperthyroid disease not requiring immunosuppressive treatment are eligible.
- Interstitial lung disease that is symptomatic or which may interfere with the
detection or management of suspected drug-related pulmonary toxicity.
- Uncontrolled asthma [defined as having 3 or more of the following features of
partially controlled asthma within 28 days prior to starting study treatment: Daytime
symptoms more than twice per week, any limitation of activities, any nocturnal
symptoms/awaking, need for reliever/rescue inhaler more than twice per week, or known
lung function (PEF or FEV1) without administration of a bronchodilator that is < 80%
predicted or personal best (if known)].
- Current symptomatic congestive heart failure (New York Heart Association > class II),
unstable cardiac arrhythmia requiring therapy (e.g. medication or pacemaker), unstable
angina (e.g. new, worsening or persistent chest discomfort), or uncontrolled
hypertension (systolic > 160 mmHg or diastolic > 100mmHg). Or any of the following
occurring within 6 months (180 days) prior to first dose of avelumab: Myocardial
infarction, coronary/peripheral artery bypass graft, cerebrovascular accident or
transient ischemic attack, or serious cardiac arrhythmia requiring medication. (Use of
antihypertensive medication to control blood pressure is allowed.)
- Concurrent treatment with a non-permitted drug.
- Requirement of anticoagulant therapy with oral vitamin K antagonists such as Coumadin
(warfarin). Low-dose anticoagulants for the maintenance of patency in a central venous
access device or the prevention of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism is
allowed. Therapeutic use of low molecular weight heparin is allowed.
- Persisting toxicity related to prior therapy that has not reduced to Grade 1 [National
Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI CTCAE) version 4.03;
however, alopecia and sensory neuropathy Grade ≤ 2 is acceptable.
- Known severe (Grade ≥ 3 NCI-CTCAE v4.03) hypersensitivity reactions to monoclonal
antibodies, including hypersensitivity to the investigational agent or any component
in its formulations, or history of anaphylaxis.
- Vaccination within 28 days of the first dose of avelumab and while on trial is
prohibited, except for administration of inactivated vaccines (for example,
inactivated influenza vaccine).
- Pregnant or breastfeeding females.
- Known alcohol or drug abuse.
- Prisoners or subjects who are involuntarily incarcerated.
- Other severe acute or chronic medical condition, including colitis, inflammatory bowl
disease, pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, or psychiatric condition including recent
(within the past year) or active suicidal ideation or behavior; or laboratory
abnormalities that may increase the risk associated with study participation or study
treatment administration or may interfere with the interpretation of study results
and, in the judgment of the investigator, would make the patient inappropriate for
entry into this study.