This is a single institution, open-label randomized phase 1 trial of neoantigen DNA vaccine
alone vs. neoantigen DNA vaccine plus durvalumab in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC)
patients following standard of care therapy. Patients with newly diagnosed clinical stage
II-III TNBC are eligible for enrollment. Patients will receive standard of care therapy
including chemotherapy, surgery and radiation therapy as clinically indicated. Following
standard of care therapy, patients will be randomized to receive either a neoantigen DNA
vaccine alone, or a neoantigen DNA vaccine + durvalumab.
- Histologically confirmed diagnosis of invasive breast cancer.
- ER and PR less than Allred score of 3 or less than 1% positive staining cells in the
invasive component of the tumor
- HER2 negative by FISH or IHC staining 0 or 1+.
- Consented for genome sequencing and dbGAP-based data sharing
- Clinical stage T1c-T4c, any N, M0 primary tumor by AJCC 7th edition clinical staging
prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
- At least 18 years of age.
- Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status ≥1.
- Adequate organ and marrow function no more than 14 days prior to registration as
- absolute neutrophil count ≥1,500/μL
- platelets ≥100,000/μL
- hemoglobin ≥ 9.0 g/dL
- serum bilirubin ≤ 1.5 X institutional upper limit of normal
- AST/ALT ≤2.5 X institutional upper limit of normal
- serum creatinine clearance >40 mL/min by the Cockcroft-Gault formula or by
24-hour urine collection for determination of creatinine clearance
- Body weight > 30 kg.
- Evidence of post-menopausal status or negative urine or serum pregnancy test for
female pre-menopausal subjects. Women will be considered post-menopausal if they have
been amenorrheic for 12 months without an alternative medical cause. The following
age-specific requirements apply:
- Women < 50 years of age would be considered post-menopausal if they have been
amenorrheic for 12 months or more following cessation of exogenous hormonal
treatments and if they have luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone
levels in the post-menopausal range for the institution or underwent surgical
sterilization (bilateral oophorectomy or hysterectomy).
- Women ≥ 50 years of age would be considered post-menopausal if they have been
amenorrheic for 12 months or more following cessation of all exogenous hormonal
treatments, had radiation-induced menopause with last menses > 1 year ago, had
chemotherapy-induced menopause with last menses > 1 year ago, or underwent
surgical sterilization (bilateral oophorectomy, bilateral salpingectomy, or
- Able to understand and willing to sign an IRB-approved written informed consent
- Received chemotherapy, radiotherapy (to more than 30% of the bone marrow or with a
wide field of radiation), or biologic therapy within the last 30 days.
- Any previous treatment with a PD1 or PD-L1 inhibitor, including durvalumab.
- Concurrent enrollment in another clinical study, unless it is an observational
(non-interventional) clinical study or during the follow-up period of an
- Receiving any other investigational agent(s) or has received an investigational agent
within the last 30 days.
- Receipt of live attenuated vaccination within 6 months prior to study entry or within
30 days of receiving durvalumab.
- Major surgical procedure within 28 days prior to the first dose of durvalumab. Local
surgery of isolated lesions for palliative intent is acceptable.
- Current use or prior use of immunosuppressive medication within 28 days before the
first dose of durvalumab, with the exceptions of intranasal and inhaled
corticosteroids or systemic corticosteroids at physiological doses which are not to
exceed 10 mg/day of prednisone or an equivalent corticosteroid.
- Known metastatic disease.
- Invasive cancer in the contralateral breast.
- Known allergy, or history of serious adverse reaction to vaccines such as anaphylaxis,
hives, or respiratory difficulty.
- History of hypersensitivity to durvalumab or any excipient.
- Mean QT interval corrected for heart rate using Fridericia's formula (QTcF) ≥ 470 ms
calculated from 3 electrocardiograms (ECGs) (within 15 minutes at 5 minutes apart).
- Any unresolved toxicity NCI CTCAE grade ≥ 2 from previous anticancer therapy with the
exception of alopecia, vitiligo, and the laboratory values defined in the inclusion
criteria. Subjects with grade ≥ 2 neuropathy will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis
after consultation with the study physician. Subjects with irreversible toxicity not
reasonably expected to be exacerbated by treatment with durvalumab may be included
only after consultation with the study physician.
- Uncontrolled intercurrent illness including, but not limited to ongoing or active
infection, symptomatic congestive heart failure, uncontrolled hypertension, unstable
angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, interstitial lung disease, serious chronic
gastrointestinal conditions associated with diarrhea, evidence of any acute or chronic
viral illness or disease, or psychiatric illness/social situation that would limit
compliance with study requirements or compromise the ability of the subject to give
written informed consent.
- Active or prior documented autoimmune or inflammatory disorders (including
inflammatory bowel disease [e.g., colitis or Crohn's disease], diverticulitis [with
the exception of diverticulosis], systemic lupus erythematosus, Sarcoidosis syndrome,
or Wegener syndrome [granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Graves' disease, rheumatoid
arthritis, hypophysitis, uveitis, etc.]). The following are exceptions to this
- Subjects with vitiligo or alopecia
- Subjects with hypothyroidism (e.g., following Hashimoto syndrome) stable on
- Any chronic skin condition that does not require systemic therapy
- Subjects without active disease in the last 5 years may be included but only
after consultation with the study physician
- Subjects with celiac disease controlled by diet alone
- History of pneumonitis or interstitial lung disease.
- History of active primary immunodeficiency.
- Active infection including tuberculosis (clinical evaluation that includes clinical
history, physical examination, and radiographic findings, and TB testing in line with
local practice), hepatitis B (known positive HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) result),
hepatitis C, or human immunodeficiency virus (positive HIV 1/2 antibodies). Subjects
with a past or resolved HBV infection (defined as the presence of hepatitis B core
antibody (anti-HBc) and absence of HBsAg) are eligible. Subjects positive for
hepatitis C (HCV) antibody are eligible only if polymerase chain reaction is negative
for HCV RNA.
- History of allogeneic organ transplantation.
- Pregnant or breastfeeding. A negative serum pregnancy test is required no more than 7
days before study entry.
- Subjects of reproductive potential who are not willing to employ effective birth
control from screening to 90 days after the last dose of durvalumab.
- History of another primary malignancy except for:
- Malignancy treated with curative intent and with no known active disease ≥ 5
years before the first dose of study treatment and low potential for risk of
- Adequately treated non-melanoma skin cancer of lentigo maligna without evidence
- Adequately treated carcinoma in situ without evidence of disease
- History of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis.
- Patient must have no active major medical or psychosocial problems that could be
complicated by study participation.
- Subjects with a strong likelihood of non-adherence such as difficulties in adhering to
follow-up schedule due to geographic distance from the Siteman Cancer Center should
not knowingly be registered.
- Individuals in whom a skinfold measurement of the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue
for eligible injection sites (left and right medial deltoid region) exceeds 40 mm.
- Individuals in whom the ability to observe possible local reactions at the eligible
injection sites (deltoid region) is, in the opinion of the investigator, unacceptably
obscured due to a physical condition or permanent body art.
- Therapeutic or traumatic metal implant in the skin or muscle of either deltoid region.
- Acute or chronic, clinically significant hematologic, pulmonary, cardiovascular, or
hepatic or renal functional abnormality as determined by the investigator based on
medical history, physical examination, EKG, and/or laboratory screening test
- Any chronic or active neurologic disorder, including seizures and epilepsy, excluding
a single febrile seizure as a child
- Syncopal episode within 12 months of screening
- Current use of any electronic stimulation device, such as cardiac demand pacemakers,
automatic implantable cardiac defibrillator, nerve stimulators, or deep brain