The study will integrate the efficacy of combining the anti programmed death-ligand 1
(anti-PD-L1) agent atezolizumab with the current standard of care in Stage IVB , persistent
or recurrent carcinoma of the cervix, namely cisplatin or carboplatin/paclitaxel/bevacizumab.
It will be explored the combination of bevacizumab plus atezolizumab, with no patient
selection based on PD-L1 expression, allowing an all-comer assessment of atezolizumab
The study is a randomized open label phase III trial to investigate the impact of
atezolizumab in combination with bevacizumab and cisplatin or carboplatin /paclitaxel
chemotherapy on overall survival and will employ the intent to treat principle, and random
assignment to one of the 2 arms will be balanced according to disease histology (squamous
cell carcinoma vs adenocarcinoma), prior platinum therapy as a radiation sensitizer (no prior
cis-Radiotherapy (RT) versus prior cis-RT) and chemotherapy backbone (cisplatin vs
This trial will be run in an open label design due to the following considerations: the
control arm is the standard of care for women diagnosed with metastatic, persistant or
recurrent cervical cancer because of its impact on overall survival and the primary endpoint
of the study is overall survival (OS), so blinding is not needed to ensure a robust
Given that both Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and PD-L1 appear important in
cervical cancer pathogenesis, this study is designed to test the hypothesis that breaking of
immune tolerance by PD-1/PD-L1 blockade will enhance the efficacy of anti-VEGF therapy in the
treatment of patients with metastatic , persistent or recurrent cervical cancer. There are
several data suggesting that atezolizumab and bevacizumab may be synergistic. Enhanced tumor
angiogenesis is commonly associated with absence of tumor-infiltrating T cells in patients.
There is evidence in ovarian cancer that tumor expression of VEGF is negatively correlated to
the density of CD8+ TILs and this phenotype is associated with early recurrence, consistent
with prior studies showing a correlation of VEGF to early recurrence and short survival.
Furthermore, in ascites, high levels of VEGF correlate to low numbers of NK T-like CD3+CD56+
In addition to promoting tumor angiogenesis, there is increasing evidence that VEGF plays a
role in cancer immune evasion through several different mechanisms. Indeed, emerging evidence
suggests that the endothelium acts as a selective barrier, allowing certain T cell subsets,
notably T regulatory (Treg) cells, to traffic more effectively into the tumor contributing to
tumor immune tolerance. In addition, some experiments have shown that tumour hypoxia promotes
the recruitment of regulatory T (T reg) cells through induction of expression of the
chemokine CC-chemokine ligand 28 (CCL28), which, in turn, promotes tumour tolerance and
Some immunosuppressive activities of VEGF, however, can be reversed by inhibition of VEGF
signaling. Mice exposed to pathophysiologic levels of VEGF exhibited impaired dendritic cell
function, which could be restored by blockade of VEGFR2.
In turn, the anti-tumor effect of angiogenesis blockade requires CD8+ T cells supporting the
notion that VEGF-A do not simply promote tumor growth through angiogenesis. Thus, peripheral
immune tolerance and angiogenesis programs seem closely connected and cooperating to sustain
In addition, there is evidence that anti-VEGF therapy and immunotherapy act synergistically.
Motz et al have suggested that the combination of anti-VEGF-A antibody and immunotherapy with
adoptive T cell transfer led to a superior infiltration of tumor-reactive T cells than any
single approach. Indeed, in a murine melanoma model, VEGF blockade synergized with adoptive
immunotherapy, as evidenced by improved anti-tumor activity, prolonged survival, and
increased trafficking of T cells into tumors. These data are reminiscent of the additive
benefit observed in patients by combining recombinant interferon-alpha therapy and
bevacizumab, a recombinant, humanized therapeutic antibody directed against VEGF, for the
treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
More evidence has come from a clinical study of subjects with melanoma combining the
checkpoint inhibitor (anti-CTLA-4) ipilimumab and bevacizumab. In 46 patients, the combined
therapy yielded a 19.6% objective response rate, stable disease in 13%. All responses were
durable >6 months and median survival was 25.1 months, much prolonged compared to
ipilimumab's expectation in metastatic melanoma. Activated vessel endothelium with extensive
CD8+ T cell and macrophage cell infiltration was observed in post-treatment biopsies, as well
as marked increases in CD4/CCR7/CD45ROm central memory cells in peripheral blood in the
majority of patients.
Thus, an emerging paradigm supported by the data above is that angiogenesis and immune
suppression are two facets of a linked biological program. Tumors seem to co-opt these
existing mechanisms that are normally required to limit excessive inflammation and promote
tissue recovery during infection or wound healing. The execution of this program sustains
tumor growth and promotes immunologic tolerance. Because of the intimate relationship between
angiogenesis and immunosuppression, it is thus expected that inhibiting both pathways will
result in improved and more durable clinical benefit.
1. Female patients must be ≥18 years of age.
2. Signed informed consent before any study-specific procedure
3. Able (in the investigator´s judgment) to comply with the study protocol
4. GOG/Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0-1
5. Life expectancy ≥3 months
6. Histologically- or cytologically-confirmed diagnosis of metastatic (stage IVB),
persistent, or recurrent cervical cancer (histologies other than squamous cell,
adenocarcinoma, or adenosquamous will be excluded) not amenable for curative treatment
with surgery and/or radiation therapy. The inclusion of patients with adenocarcinoma
histology will be capped to 20% of the whole study population.
7. No prior systemic anti-cancer therapy for metastatic or recurrent disease.
8. Measureable disease by RECIST v1.1 criteria.
9. A tumor specimen is mandatory at study entry.
10. Adequate organ function:
Hemoglobin ≥9 g/dL ANC ≥1.5 × 109/L Lymphocyte count ≥0.5 × 109/L Platelet count ≥100
11. Adequate liver function:
Serum albumin ≥2.5 g/dL Total serum bilirubin ≤1.5 ×ULN AST and ALT ≤2.5 × upper limit
normal (ULN) or ≤5 × ULN if tumor involvement (liver) is present
12. Adequate renal function:
Patients with serum creatinine <1.5 × ULN Urine dipstick for proteinuria <2+.
13. Adequate coagulation:
Blood coagulation parameters (PTT, PT/INR): PT such that international normalized
ratio (INR) is ≤ 1.5 (or an in-range INR, usually between 2 and 3, if a patient is on
a stable dose of therapeutic warfarin for management of venous thrombosis including
pulmonary thromboembolus) and a PTT <1.5 × ULN.
14. Negative Test Results for Hepatitis:
Negative hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) test at screening Negative total
hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) test at screening, or positive total HBcAb test
followed by a negative hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA test at screening.The HBV DNA test
will be performed only for patients who have a positive total HBcAb test.
Negative hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody test at screening, or positive HCV antibody
test followed by a negative HCV RNA test at screening.The HCV RNA test will be
performed only for patients who have a positive HCV antibody test.
15. Toxicities related to previous treatments must be recovered to < grade 2 (with the
exception of alopecia).
16. Female participants must be postmenopausal (≥ 12 months of non-therapy-induced
amenorrhoea) or surgically sterile (absence of ovaries and/or uterus, or who received
therapeutic radiation to the pelvis) or otherwise have a negative serum pregnancy test
within 7 days of the first study treatment and agree to abstain from heterosexual
intercourse or use single or combined contraceptive methods that result in a failure
rate of <1% per year during the whole treatment period of the study and for at least 5
months (if the last study dose contained atezolizumab) or 6 months (if the last study
dose contained bevacizumab) after the last dose of study treatment.
- Abstinence is acceptable only if it is in line with the preferred and usual
lifestyle of the patient. Periodic abstinence (e.g., calendar, ovulation,
symptothermal or postovulation methods) and withdrawal are not acceptable methods
1. Disease that is suitable for local therapy administered with curative intent
2. Prior radiotherapy delivered using cobalt (rather than a linear accelerator)
3. Patients with Stage IVA not amendable to concurrent chemo-radiation as primary
treatment will not be eligible.
4. Ongoing disease involving the bladder or rectum at screening/baseline
5. Evidence of abdominal free air
6. Bilateral hydronephrosis, unless it can be alleviated by ureteral stent(s) or
7. Patients previously treated with chemotherapy except when used concurrently with
radiation therapy. Patients who have received either concurrent paclitaxel with
radiation therapy or carboplatin/paclitaxel as adjuvant therapy are ineligible for the
8. Prior treatment with any anti-VEGF drug, including bevacizumab, CD137 agonists or
immune checkpoint blockade therapies, anti-PD1, or anti-PDL1 therapeutic antibodies or
9. Patients with a concomitant malignancy other than non-melanoma skin cancer. Patients
with a prior invasive malignancy (except non-melanoma skin cancer ) who have had any
evidence of disease within the last 5 years or whose prior malignancy treatment
contraindicates the current protocol therapy.
10. Known brain metastases or spinal cord compression. It is mandatory to perform a scan
of the brain in cases of suspected brain metastases (CT or MRI) or spinal cord
11. History or evidence, following a neurological examination, of central nervous system
(CNS) disorders, unless properly treated with standard medical treatment,(e.g.
uncontrolled epileptic seizures). History of cerebrovascular accident (CVA, stroke),
transient ischemic attack (TIA) or subarachnoid hemorrhage within six months of the
first date of treatment on this study.
12. Patients with serious non-healing wound, ulcer, or bone fracture.
13. Acute intestinal obstruction or sub-occlusion episode in the last 6 months.
14. Active GI bleeding or GI ulcer
15. History of Crohn's disease or inflammatory bowel disease
16. Prior bowel resection ≤6 weeks preceding first study dose
17. History of diverticulitis requiring medical intervention
18. NCI CTCAE (version 5.0) grade ≥2 enteritis
19. Major surgical procedure, open biopsy or significant traumatic injury within 28 days
prior to Day 1, Cycle 1.
20. Core biopsy or other minor surgical procedure, excluding placement of a vascular
access device, within 7 days prior to Day 1, Cycle 1.
21. Patients with active bleeding or pathologic conditions that carry high risk of
bleeding, such as known bleeding disorder, coagulopathy, or tumor involving major
22. Current or recent (within 10 days before the first dose of study drug) chronic daily
treatment with aspirin (>325 mg/day), clopidogrel (>75 mg/day), or current or recent
(within 10 days before first dose of bevacizumab) use of therapeutic oral or
parenteral anticoagulants or thrombolytic agents for therapeutic purposes.
23. Patients with pre-existing Grade 2 or greater peripheral neuropathy.
24. History of any grade ≥3 venous thromboembolic event (VTE)
25. Patients with clinically significant cardiovascular disease.
26. Left ventricular ejection fraction defined by MUGA/ECHO below the institutional lower
limit of normal.
27. Uncontrolled tumor-related pain
28. Uncontrolled pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, or ascites requiring recurrent
drainage procedures (once monthly or more frequently). Patients with indwelling
catheters (e.g., PleurX) are allowed.
29. Uncontrolled hypercalcemia (>1.5 mmol/L ionized calcium or calcium >12 mg/dL or
corrected serum calcium > ULN) or symptomatic hypercalcemia requiring continued use of
bisphosphonate therapy or denosumab.
30. History of autoimmune disease, including but not limited to myasthenia gravis,
myositis, autoimmune hepatitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis,
inflammatory bowel disease, vascular thrombosis associated with antiphospholipid
syndrome, Wegener's granulomatosis, Sjögren's syndrome, Guillain-Barré syndrome,
multiple sclerosis, vasculitis, or glomerulonephritis.
History of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, organizing pneumonia (e.g., bronchiolitis
obliterans), drug-induced pneumonitis, idiopathic pneumonitis, or evidence of active
pneumonitis on screening chest CT scan
31. History of radiation pneumonitis in the radiation field (fibrosis) is permitted.
32. Active tuberculosis
33. Severe infections within 4 weeks prior to Cycle 1, Day 1, including but not limited to
hospitalization for complications of infection, bacteremia, or severe pneumonia
34. Signs or symptoms of infection within 2 weeks prior to Cycle 1, Day 1
35. Received therapeutic oral or IV antibiotics within 2 weeks prior to Cycle 1, Day 1
36. Known human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
37. Administration of a live, attenuated vaccine within 4 weeks before Cycle 1, Day 1 or
anticipation that such a live attenuated vaccine will be required during the study
Influenza vaccination should be given during influenza season only
38. Any other diseases, metabolic dysfunction, physical examination finding, or clinical
laboratory finding giving reasonable suspicion of a disease or condition that
contraindicates the use of an investigational drug or that may affect the
interpretation of the results or render the patient at high risk from treatment
39. Treatment with systemic immunostimulatory agents (including but not limited to IFNs,
IL-2) within 6 weeks or 5 half-lives of the drug, whichever is shorter, prior to Cycle
1, Day 1
40. Treatment with systemic immunosuppressive medications (including but not limited to
prednisone, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, methotrexate, thalidomide, and anti-tumor
necrosis factor [anti-TNF] agents) within 2 weeks prior to Cycle 1, Day 1 The use of
corticosteroids is allowed as premedication for paclitaxel-based regimen. All patients
should be premedicated prior to receiving chemotherapy (including with
corticosteroids) according to the prescription information of paclitaxel and
cisplatin/carboplatin and the institutional standard of care guidance.
41. Currently participating or has participated in a study of an investigational agent and
received study therapy or used an investigational device within 4 weeks prior to the
first dose of study treatment.
42. Prior anti-cancer monoclonal antibody (mAb), prior chemotherapy, targeted small
molecule therapy as first line treatment for the treatment of metastatic or recurrent
43. Women that are breastfeeding or pregnant
44. Known hypersensitivity to bevacizumab, atezolizumab or any of theirs excipients
45. Demonstration of any other neurological or metabolic dysfunction, found upon physical
examination or laboratory tests involving a reasonable suspicion of the existence of a
disease or condition that contraindicates the use of an experimental drug, or that
involves an increased risk to the patient of treatment-related complications
46. No medical or psychiatric illness that may impede the performance of a systemic or