I. To evaluate the preliminary efficacy of pembrolizumab (MK-3475) in combination with
standard-of-care cisplatin-based chemotherapy by assessing the durable response rate (DRR),
overall response rate (ORR), duration of response (DOR), and progression free survival (PFS)
by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1 and overall survival (OS) in
Cohorts 1 and 2, and radiographic PFS (rPFS) by Prostate Cancer Working Group 3 (PCWG3) and
prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response in Cohort 2.
I. To determine the safety and tolerability of pembrolizumab in combination with etoposide
and cisplatin/carboplatin or docetaxel and carboplatin assessed by parameters of adverse
I. Determine correlation of biomarkers including PD-L1 expression (PD-L1 positive >= 1% by
immunohistochemistry [IHC] using 22C3 antibody), and serum and tissue molecular (including
genomic, proteomic) biomarkers that may be indicative of clinic response or safety.
Participants receive pembrolizumab intravenously (IV) over 30 minutes on day 1. Courses
repeat every 3 weeks for 2 years in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable
toxicity. Participants also receive standard of care chemotherapy comprising either etoposide
IV on days 1-3 and cisplatin IV or carboplatin IV on day 1 (Cohort 1), or etoposide IV on
days 1-3, carboplatin IV on day 1, and docetaxel IV on day 1 (Cohort 2). Treatment repeats
every 3 weeks for up to 6 courses in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable
After completion of study treatment, participants are followed up at 30 days, every 9-12
weeks for up to 2 years, and then every 12 weeks thereafter.
- Histologically confirmed diagnosis of locally advanced or metastatic 1) naive small
cell cancer of the bladder, urethra, or upper urinary tract, or 2) primary small cell
or neuroendocrine prostate cancer will be enrolled in this study.
- Histological diagnosis of pure or mixed small cell or neuroendocrine cancer by a
genitourinary pathologist is sufficient and confirmatory immunohistochemistry is not
- Cohort 1 will include subjects with no prior systemic chemotherapy for locally
advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma, with the following exception(s):
- Platinum-based chemotherapy with recurrence > 12 months from completion of
therapy is permitted.
- Cohort 2 will include subjects with no prior systemic chemotherapy for primary small
cell prostate cancer, with the following exception(s):
- Platinum-based chemotherapy with recurrence > 12 months from completion of
therapy is permitted.
- Cohort 2 will include subjects with prior treatments for metastatic
castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) including:
- Prior chemotherapy with 2 other agents is allowed if > 6 months elapsed from last
dose (if docetaxel chemotherapy is used more than once for hormone-sensitive and
for mCRPC it will be considered 1 therapy).
- Ongoing androgen deprivation therapy with up to 2 second-generation hormonal
manipulations (e.g. including but not limited to abiraterone acetate and/or
- Ongoing treatment with for bone metastasis (e.g. denosumab or zoledronic acid) is
- Prior immunotherapy with sipuleucel-T is allowed if completed > 4 weeks prior to
- A male participant must agree to use contraception during the treatment period and for
at least 120 days after the last dose of pembrolizumab or 180 days after chemotherapy
and refrain from donating sperm during this period.
- A female participant is eligible to participate if she is not pregnant, not
breastfeeding, and at least one of the following conditions applies:
- Not a woman of childbearing potential (WOCBP) or
- A WOCBP who agrees to follow the contraceptive guidance during the treatment
period and for at least 120 days after the last dose of pembrolizumab or 180 days
- The participant (or legally acceptable representative if applicable) provides written
informed consent for the trial.
- Have measurable disease based on RECIST 1.1. Lesions situated in a previously
irradiated area are considered measurable if progression has been demonstrated in such
- Have provided archival tumor tissue sample or newly obtained core or excisional biopsy
of a tumor lesion not previously irradiated within 6 months of screening.
Formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue blocks are preferred to slides. In
addition, the availability of fresh frozen tissue is encouraged. Newly obtained
biopsies are preferred to archival tissue.
- Have an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 to 1.
Evaluation of ECOG is to be performed within 7 days prior to the date of allocation.
- Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >= 1500/uL within 10 days prior to the start of study
- Platelets >= 100 000/uL within 10 days prior to the start of study treatment.
- Hemoglobin >= 9.0 g/dL or >= 5.6 mmol/L within 10 days prior to the start of study
- Criteria must be met without erythropoietin dependency and without packed red
blood cell (pRBC) transfusion within last 2 weeks.
- Creatinine =< 1.5 x upper limit of normal (ULN) OR measured or calculated creatinine
clearance (glomerular filtration rate [GFR] can also be used in place of creatinine or
creatinine clearance [CrCl]) >= 30 mL/min for participant with creatinine levels >1.5
x institutional ULN within 10 days prior to the start of study treatment.
- Creatinine clearance (CrCl) should be calculated per institutional standard.
- Total bilirubin =< 1.5 ?ULN or direct bilirubin =< ULN for participants with total
bilirubin levels > 1.5 ? ULN within 10 days prior to the start of study treatment.
- Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase [SGOT]) and
alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase [SGPT]) =< 2.5 ?
ULN (=< 5 ? ULN for participants with liver metastases) within 10 days prior to the
start of study treatment.
- International normalized ratio (INR) or prothrombin time (PT) =< 1.5 ? ULN unless
participant is receiving anticoagulant therapy as long as PT or activated partial
thromboplastin time (aPTT) is within therapeutic range of intended use of
anticoagulants within 10 days prior to the start of study treatment.
- Has disease suitable for local treatment with curative intent.
- A WOCBP who has a positive urine pregnancy test within 72 hours prior to receiving the
first dose of trial medication. If the urine test is positive or cannot be confirmed
as negative, a serum pregnancy test will be required.
- Has received prior therapy with an anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, or anti-PD-L2 agent or with
an agent directed to another stimulatory or co-inhibitory T-cell receptor (e.g.
CTLA-4, OX-40, CD137).
- Has received prior systemic anti-cancer therapy including investigational agents
within 4 weeks prior to first dose of trial treatment.
- Note: Participants must have recovered from all AEs due to previous therapies to
=< grade 1 or baseline. Participants with =< grade 2 neuropathy may be eligible.
- Note: If participant received major surgery, they must have recovered adequately
from the toxicity and/or complications from the intervention prior to starting
- Has received prior radiotherapy within 2 weeks of start of study treatment.
Participants must have recovered from all radiation-related toxicities, not require
corticosteroids, and not have had radiation pneumonitis. A 1-week washout is permitted
for palliative radiation (=< 2 weeks of radiotherapy) to non-central nervous system
- Has received a live vaccine within 30 days prior to the first dose of study drug.
Examples of live vaccines include, but are not limited to, the following: measles,
mumps, rubella, varicella/zoster (chicken pox), yellow fever, rabies, Bacillus
Calmette?Guerin (BCG), and typhoid vaccine. Seasonal influenza vaccines for injection
are generally killed virus vaccines and are allowed; however, intranasal influenza
vaccines (eg, FluMist) are live attenuated vaccines and are not allowed.
- Is currently participating in or has participated in a study of an investigational
agent or has used an investigational device within 4 weeks prior to the first dose of
- Note: Participants who have entered the follow-up phase of an investigational
study may participate as long as it has been 4 weeks after the last dose of the
previous investigational agent.
- Has a diagnosis of immunodeficiency or is receiving chronic systemic steroid therapy
(in dosing exceeding 10 mg daily of prednisone equivalent) or any other form of
immunosuppressive therapy within 7 days prior to the first dose of study drug.
- Has a known additional malignancy that is progressing or has required active treatment
within the past 3 years. Note: Participants with basal cell carcinoma of the skin,
squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, or carcinoma in situ (e.g. breast carcinoma,
cervical cancer in situ) that have undergone potentially curative therapy are not
- For Cohort 1, a history of prostate cancer that was identified incidentally
following cystoprostatectomy for bladder cancer is acceptable provided that the
PSA is < 0.2.
- Has known active CNS metastases and/or carcinomatous meningitis. Participants with
previously treated brain metastases may participate provided they are radiologically
stable, i.e. without evidence of progression for at least 4 weeks by repeat imaging
(note that the repeat imaging should be performed during study screening), clinically
stable and without requirement of steroid treatment for at least 14 days prior to
first dose of study treatment.
- Has severe hypersensitivity (>= grade 3) to pembrolizumab and/or any of its
- Has active autoimmune disease that has required systemic treatment in the past 2 years
(i.e. with use of disease modifying agents, corticosteroids or immunosuppressive
drugs). Replacement therapy (eg., thyroxine, insulin, or physiologic corticosteroid
replacement therapy for adrenal or pituitary insufficiency, etc.) is not considered a
form of systemic treatment.
- Has a history of (non-infectious) pneumonitis that required steroids or has current
- Has an active infection requiring systemic therapy.
- Has a known history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
- Has a known history of hepatitis B (defined as hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg]
reactive) or known active hepatitis C virus (defined as HCV ribonucleic acid [RNA]
[qualitative] is detected) infection. Note: no testing for hepatitis B and hepatitis C
is required unless mandated by local health authority.
- Has a known history of active TB (bacillus tuberculosis).
- Has a history or current evidence of any condition, therapy, or laboratory abnormality
that might confound the results of the study, interfere with the subject?s
participation for the full duration of the study, or is not in the best interest of
the subject to participate, in the opinion of the treating investigator.
- Has known psychiatric or substance abuse disorders that would interfere with
cooperation with the requirements of the trial.
- Is pregnant or breastfeeding, or expecting to conceive or father children within the
projected duration of the study, starting with the screening visit through 120 days
after the last dose of trial treatment.