The purpose of this study is to test the effectiveness (how well the drug works), safety, and
tolerability of the investigational drug combination of nivolumab plus nal-irinotecan,
5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin for patients with advanced or metastatic biliary tract cancer
after progression on first-line systemic therapy.
- Patients must have a pathologically confirmed carcinoma of the biliary tract
(intra-hepatic, extra-hepatic (hilar, distal) or gall bladder) that is not eligible
for curative resection, transplantation, or ablative therapies. Tumors with mixed
hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma histology are excluded.
- Patients must have received one and only one prior systemic therapy for advanced
disease. Prior therapies must have not included irinotecan or PD- 1/PD-L1 antibody.
Patient should have either progressed on or within 6 months of first-line systemic
therapy or deemed intolerant of that therapy.
- Prior surgical resection, radiation, chemoembolization, radioembolization or other
local ablative therapies are permitted if completed ≥ 4 weeks prior to registration
AND if patient has recovered to ≤ grade 1 toxicity.
- Patients must have radiographically measurable disease (as per RECISTv1.1) in at least
one site not previously treated with radiation or liver directed therapy (including
bland, chemo- or radio-embolization, or ablation) either within the liver or in a
- Age ≥18 years
- Child-Pugh score of less than 7
- ECOG performance status of 0-1
- Ability to understand and willingness to sign IRB-approved informed consent
- Available archived tissue (FFPE block or 20 unstained slides from prior core biopsy or
- Must be able to tolerate CT and/or MRI with contrast
- Adequate organ function (per protocol) assessed ≤2 weeks prior to registration
- Must not have received systemic steroid therapy, or any other form of
immunosuppressive therapy within 14 days prior to registration. Short bursts of
steroids of 5-7 days (for COPD exacerbation or other similar indication) are allowed.
- No prior history of solid organ transplantation or brain metastasis (unless treated,
asymptomatic and stable).
- Must not have undergone a major surgical procedure < 4 weeks prior to registration.
- Must not have an active second malignancy other than non-melanoma skin cancer or
cervical carcinoma in situ. Patients with history of malignancy are eligible provided
primary treatment of that cancer was completed > 1 year prior to registration and the
patient is free of clinical or radiologic evidence of recurrent or progressive
- Must have no ongoing active, uncontrolled infections (afebrile for > 48 hours off
- Must not have received a live vaccine within 30 days of registration
- Must not have a psychiatric illness, other significant medical illness, or social
situation which, in the investigator's opinion, would limit compliance or ability to
comply with study requirements.
- Women must not be pregnant or breastfeeding since 5-fluorouracil, nal- irinotecan
and/or nivolumab may harm the fetus or child. All females of childbearing potential
(not surgically sterilized and between menarche and 1- year post menopause) must have
a blood test to rule out pregnancy within 2 weeks prior to registration.
- Women of child-bearing potential and men must agree to use 2 methods of adequate
contraception (hormonal plus barrier or 2 barrier forms) OR abstinence prior to study
entry, for the duration of study participation, and for 5 months (for women) and 7
months (for men) following completion of study therapy.
- Participants with an active, known or suspected autoimmune disease which may affect
vital organ function, or has/may require systemic immunosuppressive therapy for
management are excluded. Participants with type I diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism
only requiring hormone replacement, skin disorders (such as vitiligo, psoriasis, or
alopecia) not requiring systemic treatment, or conditions not expected to recur in the
absence of an external trigger are permitted to enroll.
- Participants with a condition requiring systemic treatment with either corticosteroids
(>10 mg daily prednisone equivalent) or other immunosuppressive medications within 14
days of registration are excluded. Inhaled, ocular, intra-articular, intra-nasal or
topical steroids, and adrenal replacement steroid doses >10 mg daily prednisone
equivalent, are permitted in the absence of active autoimmune disease.
- No known UGT1A1* variants or Gilbert's syndrome
- Prisoners or subjects who are involuntarily incarcerated, or compulsorily detained for
treatment of either a psychiatric or physical (e.g. infectious disease) illness would
- No known hypersensitivity to 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and/or nivolumab.
- Must not have ongoing bowel obstruction.
- No known HIV, Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C infection that is untreated and/or with a
detectable viral load.
- Patients must not have uncontrolled intercurrent illness including, but not limited
to, interstitial lung disease, symptomatic congestive heart failure, unstable angina
pectoris, uncontrolled cardiac arrhythmia.
- No known medical condition (e.g. a condition associated with uncontrolled diarrhea
such as ulcerative colitis or acute diverticulitis) that, in the investigator's
opinion, would increase the risk associated with study participation or interfere with
the interpretation of safety results.
- Patients must not be on warfarin, strong CYP3A4 inducers (such as phenytoin,
phenobarbital, primidone, carbamazepine, rifampin, rifabutin, rifapentine or St.
John's wort), strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (such as ketoconazole, clarithromycin,
indinavir, itraconazole, lopinavir, nefazodone, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir,
telaprevir, voriconazole), and strong UGT1A1 inhibitors (such as atazanavir,
gemfibrozil, indinavir and ketoconazole).