1. To assess the objective response rate to a three-drug regimen (a platinum doublet plus
an anti-angiogenic agent) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer who fail to
respond, or progress after an initial response, to primary therapy with an immune
2. To assess the toxicity profile of the three-drug regimen in this population compared to
historical treatment-naïve population (as published in literature)
1. To investigate the role of peripheral blood CD 8+ T cells, absolute eosinophil count
(AEC) and circulating tumor cells (CTC) as biomarkers of response to salvage
chemotherapy after primary immunotherapy
2. To investigate the role of plasma carbonic anhydrase IX level as predictive biomarker of
response to ramucirumab.
1. Histologically confirmed stage IV NSCLC per 8th IASCL (International Association for
the Study of Lung Cancer) of squamous and non-squamous histology, with progression on
first line anti-PD1 immunotherapy.
2. Oligo-metastatic stage IV patients who received concurrent chemotherapy with thoracic
radiation, followed by durvalumab consolidation and had progression of disease.
3. Locally advanced un-resectable NSCLC patients who received concurrent chemotherapy
with thoracic radiation, followed by durvalumab consolidation and had progression of
4. Males or females at least 18 years of age.
5. ECOG (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group) performance status of 0 or 1.
6. Measureable disease by CT or MRI per RECIST 1.1 criteria.
7. Life expectancy of at least 3 months.
8. Resolution of all clinically significant toxic effects of prior anticancer therapy to
Grade ≤1 by the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse
Events (NCI-CTCAE), Version 4.0.
9. The participant must have adequate organ function, defined as:
- Total bilirubin less than or equal to the upper limit of normal value (ULN),
aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ≤2.5 x ULN,
or ≤5 x ULN if the transferase elevation was due to liver metastases.
- Serum creatinine ≤1.5 x ULN or calculated creatinine clearance ≥50 mL/min (per
the Cockcroft-Gault formula or equivalent and/or 24-hour urine collection
[Cockcroft-Gault glomerular filtration rate = (140-age) * (Wt in kg) * (0.85 if
female) / (72 * Cr) where "Cr" is serum creatinine]).
- Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≥1.5 x 103/μL (≥1.5 x 109/L), hemoglobin ≥10.0
g/dL (≥ 6.2 mmol/L), and platelets ≥100 x 103/μL (≥100 x 109/L).
- International Normalized Ratio (INR) less than or equal to 1.5, or prothrombin
time and partial thromboplastin time less than or equal to 1.5 x ULN.
- The participant does not have cirrhosis at a level of Child-Pugh B (or worse) or
cirrhosis (any degree) and a history of hepatic encephalopathy or clinically
meaningful ascites resulting from cirrhosis. Clinically meaningful ascites is
defined as ascites resulting from cirrhosis and requiring ongoing treatment with
diuretics and/or paracentesis.
10. Urinary protein is ≤1+ on dipstick or routine urinalysis (UA). If urine dipstick or
routine analysis indicated proteinuria ≥2+, then a 24-hour urine must be collected and
must demonstrate <1000 mg of protein in 24 hours to allow participation in the study.
11. Female subjects must have a negative urine or serum pregnancy test at screening
(within 72 hours of first dose of study medication) if of childbearing potential or be
of non-child bearing potential.
12. If of childbearing potential, female subjects must be willing to use two adequate
barrier methods throughout the study, starting with the screening visit through 180
days after last dose of chemotherapeutic agents.
Note: Abstinence is acceptable if this is the established and preferred contraception.
13. Male subjects with a female partner(s) of child-bearing potential must agree to use
two adequate barrier methods throughout the trial starting with the screening visit
through 180 days after the last dose of chemotherapy. Males with pregnant partners
must agree to use a condom; no additional method of contraception is required for the
14. The participant has voluntarily agreed to participate by giving written informed
consent for the trial.
1. Participant has received prior cytotoxic therapy or targeted oral agents for the
treatment of their stage IV NSCLC. Participants with oligo-metastatic stage IV disease
who received concurrent chemotherapy with thoracic radiation, followed by durvalumab
consolidation with disease progression were eligible.
2. Participant has an EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) sensitizing mutation, ALK
translocation and/or an ROS-1 gene rearrangement.
3. Participant has undergone major surgery within 28 days prior to screening, or
subcutaneous venous access device placement within 7 days prior to screening.
Furthermore, any partcipant with postoperative bleeding complications or wound
complications from a surgical procedure performed in the last 2 months will be
4. Participant has untreated CNS (central nervous system) metastases. Participants with
treated brain metastases were eligible if they were clinically stable with regard to
neurologic function, off steroids after cranial irradiation (whole brain radiation
therapy, focal radiation therapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery) ending at least 2
weeks prior to screening, or after surgical resection performed at least 28 days prior
to screening. No evidence of Grade ≥1 CNS hemorrhage based on pretreatment MRI or IV
contrast CT scan (performed within 21 days before screening).
5. There is radiologically documented evidence of major blood vessel invasion or
encasement by cancer.
6. There is radiographic evidence of intra-tumor cavitation, regardless of tumor
7. Participant has a history of uncontrolled hereditary or acquired thrombotic disorder.
8. Participant has a history of gross hemoptysis (defined as bright red blood or ≥1/2
teaspoon) within 2months prior to screening.
9. Participant has clinically relevant congestive heart failure (CHF; NYHA II-IV) or
symptomatic or poorly controlled cardiac arrhythmia.
10. Participant has experienced any arterial thrombotic event, including myocardial
infarction, unstable angina, cerebrovascular accident, or transient ischemic attack,
within 6 months prior to screening.
11. Participant has uncontrolled arterial hypertension ≥150 / ≥90 mm Hg despite standard
12. Participant has a serious or non-healing wound, ulcer, or bone fracture within 28 days
prior to screening.
13. Participant has significant bleeding disorders, vasculitis, or experienced Grade 3-4
gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding within 3 months prior to screening.
14. History of GI perforation and/or fistulae within 6 months prior to screening.
15. Participant has bowel obstruction,history or presence of inflammatory enteropathy or
extensive intestinal resection (hemicolectomy or extensive small intestine resection
with chronic diarrhea), Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, or chronic diarrhea.
16. Participant has peripheral neuropathy ≥Grade 2 (NCI-CTCAE v 4.0).
17. Participant has a serious illness or medical condition(s) including, but not limited
to, the following:
- Known human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or acquired immunodeficiency
syndrome (AIDS)-related illness.
- Active or uncontrolled clinically serious infection.
- Previous or concurrent malignancy except for basal or squamous cell skin cancer
and/or in situ carcinoma of the cervix, or other solid tumours treated curatively
and without evidence of recurrence for at least 3 years prior to screening.
- Uncontrolled metabolic disorders or other nonmalignant organ or systemic diseases
or secondary effects of cancer that induced a high medical risk and/or made
assessment of survival uncertain.
- Other severe acute or chronic medical or psychiatric condition or laboratory
abnormality that might increase the risk associated with study participation or
study drug administration, or might interfere with the interpretation of study
results, and in the judgment of the investigator made the patient ineligible for
entry into this study.
- Participant has significant third-space fluid retention (for example, ascites or
pleural effusion), and is not amenable for required repeated drainage.
- Known allergy or hypersensitivity reaction to any of the treatment components.
- Participant has a known history of active drug abuse.