Approximately 64 patients with resected, newly-diagnosed WHO Grade IV glioma in which the
Methylguanine Methyltransferase (MGMT) is not methylated will be accrued to this study before
standard of care radiation therapy (RT) and concurrent TMZ, with the goal of treating 48
patients with dose-intensified temozolomide and pp65 loaded dendritic cell vaccine after
completion of standard RT and TMZ.
All enrolled patients will undergo a leukapheresis for the generation of DCs. Patients will
then receive approximately 6 weeks of the standard of care radiation therapy (RT) and
concurrent TMZ at a standard targeted dose of 75 mg/m2/day. For patients whose initial
leukapheresis yields less than 3 vaccines, repeat leukapheresis may be obtained. At the
post-RT clinic visit, a single post-RT cycle of dose-intensified TMZ (100 mg/m2/day for 21
days) will be given. On day 23 (± 2 days) of the cycle, patients will receive the first of 3
pp65 DC vaccines every 2 weeks. All patients will receive up to a total of 10 DC vaccines,
with vaccines administered every 28 days (± 2 days) after the third vaccine, given
bilaterally at the groin site unless progression occurs with no further cycles of TMZ. DC
vaccines will be given intradermally (i.d.) and divided equally to both inguinal regions.
Before the first DC vaccination, patients will receive 0.5 mL of Td (tetanus and diphtheria
toxoids adsorbed) intramuscularly into the deltoid muscle to ensure adequate immunity to the
tetanus antigen. Patients will undergo leukapheresis again for immunologic monitoring with a
specific assessment of baseline antigen-specific cellular and humoral immune responses if
needed for further DC generations 4 (± 2) weeks after vaccine #3. Prior to pp65 DC
vaccination #4,(3±1) weeks after leukapheresis 2 the vaccine site will receive a
pre-conditioning intradermal injection of Td. Up to 16 patients will receive 111-Indium
labeled DCs at the 4th vaccine followed by SPECT/CT imaging immediately, and at 1 and 2 days
- Age ≥ 18 years
- World Health Organization (WHO) Grade IV Glioma with definitive resection prior to the
consent, with a residual radiographic contrast-enhancing disease on the postoperative
computed tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of <1 cm in maximal
diameter in any axial plane.
- MRI post-RT does not show progressive disease at the time of enrollment
- Enough tumor tissue available for determination of MGMT gene promoter status (must be
- CMV Seropositive
- KPS of > 80%
- Hemoglobin ≥ 9.0 g/dl, absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≥ 1,500 cells/µl, platelets ≥
- Serum creatinine ≤ 1.5 mg/dl, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and
bilirubin ≤ 1.5 times upper limit of normal
- Signed informed consent approved by the Institutional Review Board
- Female patients must not be pregnant or breastfeeding. Female patients of childbearing
potential (defined as < 2 years after last menstruation or not surgically sterile)
must use a highly effective contraceptive method (allowed methods of birth control,
[i.e. with a failure rate of < 1% per year] are implants, injectables, combined oral
contraceptives, intra-uterine device [IUD; only hormonal], sexual abstinence or
vasectomized partner) during the trial and for a period of > 6 months following the
last administration of trial drug(s). Female patients with an intact uterus (unless
amenorrhea for the last 24 months) must have a negative serum pregnancy test within 48
hours prior to first study procedure (leukapheresis).
- Fertile male patients must agree to use a highly effective contraceptive method
(allowed methods of birth control [i.e. with a failure rate of < 1% per year] include
a female partner using implants, injectables, combined oral contraceptives, IUDs [only
hormonal], sexual abstinence or prior vasectomy) during the trial and for a period of
> 6 months following the last administration of trial drugs.
- Pregnant or breastfeeding.
- Women of childbearing potential and men who are sexually active and not willing/able
to use medically acceptable forms of contraception.
- Patients with known potentially anaphylactic allergic reactions to gadolinium-
diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA).
- Patients who cannot undergo MRI or SPECT due to obesity or to having certain metal in
their bodies (specifically pacemakers, infusion pumps, metal aneurysm clips, metal
prostheses, joints, rods, or plates).
- Patients with evidence of tumor in the brainstem, cerebellum, or spinal cord,
radiological evidence of multifocal disease, or leptomeningeal disease.
- Prior chemotherapy or radiosensitizers (including Gliadel wafers) for cancers of the
head and neck region, other than TMZ prescribed during radiation for GBM (prior
chemotherapy for a different cancer is allowable)
- Severe, active comorbidity, including any of the following:
1. Unstable angina and/or congestive heart failure requiring hospitalization;
2. Transmural myocardial infarction within the last 6 months;
3. Acute bacterial or fungal infection requiring intravenous antibiotics at the time
of study initiation;
4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation or other respiratory illness
requiring hospitalization or precluding study therapy;
5. Known hepatic insufficiency resulting in clinical jaundice and/or coagulation
6. Known Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C positive status;
7. Major medical illnesses or psychiatric impairments that, in the investigator's
opinion, will prevent administration or completion of protocol therapy;
8. Active connective tissue disorders, such as lupus or scleroderma that, in the
opinion of the treating physician, may put the patient at high risk for radiation
- Co-medication that may interfere with study results; e.g. immuno-suppressive agents
other than corticosteroids
- Prior, unrelated malignancy requiring current active treatment with the exception of
cervical carcinoma in situ and adequately treated basal cell or squamous cell
carcinoma of the skin. (Treatment with tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors or other
hormonal therapy that may be indicated in the prevention of prior cancer disease
recurrence, are not considered current active treatment.)
- Patients are not permitted to have had any other conventional therapeutic intervention
other than steroids prior to enrollment outside of the standard of care chemotherapy
and radiation therapy. Patients who receive previous inguinal lymph node dissection,
radiosurgery, brachytherapy, or radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies will be excluded
- Current, recent (within 4 weeks of the administration of this study agent), or planned
participation in an experimental drug study.
- Known history of autoimmune disease (with the exceptions of medically-controlled
hypothyroidism and Type I Diabetes Mellitus).