Clinical Trials /

Pediatric Trial of Indoximod With Chemotherapy and Radiation for Relapsed Brain Tumors or Newly Diagnosed DIPG

NCT04049669

Description:

Indoximod was developed to inhibit the IDO (indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase) enzymatic pathway, which is important in the natural regulation of immune responses. This potent immune suppressive mechanism has been implicated in regulating immune responses in settings as diverse as infection, tissue/organ transplant, autoimmunity, and cancer. By inhibiting the IDO pathway, we hypothesize that indoximod will improve antitumor immune responses and thereby slow the growth of tumors. The central clinical hypothesis for the GCC1949 study is that inhibiting the pivotal IDO pathway by adding indoximod immunotherapy during chemotherapy and/or radiation is a potent approach for breaking immune tolerance to pediatric tumors that will improve outcomes, relative to standard therapy alone. This is an NCI-funded (R01 CA229646, MPI: Johnson and Munn) open-label phase 2 trial using indoximod-based combination chemo-radio-immunotherapy for treatment of patients age 3 to 21 years who have progressive brain cancer (glioblastoma, medulloblastoma, or ependymoma), or newly-diagnosed diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). Statistical analysis will stratify patients based on whether their treatment plan includes up-front radiation (or proton) therapy in combination with indoximod. Central review of tissue diagnosis from prior surgery is required, except non-biopsied DIPG. This study will use the "immune-adapted Response Assessment for Neuro-Oncology" (iRANO) criteria for measurement of outcomes. Planned enrollment is up to 140 patients.

Related Conditions:
  • Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma
  • Ependymoma
  • Glioblastoma
  • Medulloblastoma
Recruiting Status:

Recruiting

Phase:

Phase 2

Trial Eligibility

Document

Title

  • Brief Title: Pediatric Trial of Indoximod With Chemotherapy and Radiation for Relapsed Brain Tumors or Newly Diagnosed DIPG
  • Official Title: Phase 2 Trial of Indoximod With Chemotherapy and Radiation for Children With Progressive Brain Tumors or Newly Diagnosed DIPG

Clinical Trial IDs

  • ORG STUDY ID: GCC1949
  • SECONDARY ID: R01CA229646
  • NCT ID: NCT04049669

Conditions

  • Glioblastoma
  • Medulloblastoma
  • Ependymoma
  • Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma

Interventions

DrugSynonymsArms
IndoximodCore Regimen, sub-cohort B
IndoximodCore Regimen, sub-cohort A
TemozolomideCore Regimen, sub-cohort A
CyclophosphamideSalvage Regimen 1
EtoposideSalvage Regimen 1
LomustineSalvage Regimen 2

Purpose

Indoximod was developed to inhibit the IDO (indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase) enzymatic pathway, which is important in the natural regulation of immune responses. This potent immune suppressive mechanism has been implicated in regulating immune responses in settings as diverse as infection, tissue/organ transplant, autoimmunity, and cancer. By inhibiting the IDO pathway, we hypothesize that indoximod will improve antitumor immune responses and thereby slow the growth of tumors. The central clinical hypothesis for the GCC1949 study is that inhibiting the pivotal IDO pathway by adding indoximod immunotherapy during chemotherapy and/or radiation is a potent approach for breaking immune tolerance to pediatric tumors that will improve outcomes, relative to standard therapy alone. This is an NCI-funded (R01 CA229646, MPI: Johnson and Munn) open-label phase 2 trial using indoximod-based combination chemo-radio-immunotherapy for treatment of patients age 3 to 21 years who have progressive brain cancer (glioblastoma, medulloblastoma, or ependymoma), or newly-diagnosed diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). Statistical analysis will stratify patients based on whether their treatment plan includes up-front radiation (or proton) therapy in combination with indoximod. Central review of tissue diagnosis from prior surgery is required, except non-biopsied DIPG. This study will use the "immune-adapted Response Assessment for Neuro-Oncology" (iRANO) criteria for measurement of outcomes. Planned enrollment is up to 140 patients.

Detailed Description

      Disease-specific Cohorts :

      Cohort 1A, 1B: progressive glioblastoma (relapsed or refractory)

      Cohort 2A, 2B: progressive medulloblastoma (relapsed or refractory)

      Cohort 3A, 3B, 3C: progressive ependymoma (relapsed or refractory)

      Cohort 4C: newly-diagnosed DIPG (must have no prior radiation or other therapy)

      .

      Radiation (or proton) plan sub-cohorts:

      Sub-cohort A: for patients not eligible for re-irradiation

      Sub-cohort B: for patients who are eligible for partial re-irradiation

      Sub-cohort C: for patients who are eligible for full-dose radiation (All newly diagnosed DIPG
      patients and some relapsed ependymoma patients)
    

Trial Arms

NameTypeDescriptionInterventions
Core Regimen, sub-cohort AExperimentalFor patients not eligible for re-irradiation; Start with Core Regimen chemo-immunotherapy (indoximod with oral temozolomide).
  • Indoximod
  • Temozolomide
Core Regimen, sub-cohort BExperimentalFor patients who are eligible for partial re-irradiation; Start with indoximod plus up-front re-irradiation, using a palliative low-dose or partial-field radiation plan (low-dose radiation or not all disease sites included); Followed by Core Regimen chemo-immunotherapy (indoximod with oral temozolomide).
  • Indoximod
  • Indoximod
  • Temozolomide
Core Regimen, sub-cohort CExperimentalFor patients who are eligible for full-dose radiation; (All newly diagnosed DIPG patients and some relapsed ependymoma patients); Start with indoximod plus up-front radiation, using a palliative full-dose radiation plan to all known sites of disease (>50 Gy to brain, >45 Gy to spine); Followed by Core Regimen chemo-immunotherapy (indoximod with oral temozolomide).
  • Indoximod
  • Indoximod
  • Temozolomide
Salvage Regimen 1ExperimentalFor patients who wish to continue access to indoximod after progression on the Core Regimen; Cross-over to indoximod with oral metronomic cyclophosphamide and etoposide).
  • Indoximod
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Etoposide
Salvage Regimen 2ExperimentalFor patients who wish to continue access to indoximod after progression on the Core Regimen; Cross-over to indoximod with oral lomustine and temozolomide).
  • Indoximod
  • Temozolomide
  • Lomustine

Eligibility Criteria

        Inclusion Criteria:

        Diagnosis:

          -  Progressive disease with histologically proven initial diagnosis of glioblastoma,
             medulloblastoma, or ependymoma; With confirmation of progression by either MRI or CSF
             analysis; Measureable disease is not required for study entry; Patients with
             progressive disease must have been previously treated with therapeutic radiation as
             part of treatment for the initial brain cancer diagnosis or for a prior relapse.

          -  Newly diagnosed DIPG (diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma) with no prior therapy
             (including no prior radiation); Biopsy is not required for DIPG.

          -  Central review of tissue diagnosis is required, except non-biopsied DIPG; Archival
             tumor tissue must be located and available prior to study entry.

          -  Patients with metastatic disease are eligible.

        Lansky or Karnofsky performance status score must be ≥ 50%.

        Adequate renal function: creatinine ≤ 1.5-times upper limit of age-adjusted normal.

        Adequate liver function:

          -  ALT ≤ 5-times upper limit of normal.

          -  Total bilirubin ≤ 1.5-times upper limit of normal.

        Adequate Bone marrow function:

          -  Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≥ 750/mcL.

          -  Platelets ≥ 75,000/mcL (transfusion independent).

          -  Hemoglobin ≥ 8 g/dL (transfusion independent).

        Central nervous system: seizure disorders must be well controlled on antiepileptic
        medication.

        Prior therapy

          -  DIPG patients must not have been treated with any prior radiation or medical therapy.

          -  Patients previously treated with indoximod are excluded.

          -  Patients previously treated with any other immunotherapy agent, including other
             IDO-targeted drugs, are eligible for enrollment.

          -  Patients previously treated with chemotherapy drugs included in this protocol are
             eligible for enrollment.

        Patients must be 14 days from the administration of any investigational agent or prior
        cytotoxic therapy with the following exceptions:

          -  Temozolomide dosed at or above 150 mg/m2 (allowed, but must be at least 21 days from
             the last dose of temozolomide).

          -  Must be 28 days from administration of antibody-based therapies (e.g., bevacizumab),
             tumor-directed vaccines, or cellular immune therapies (e.g., T cells, NK cells, etc).

          -  Must be 56 days from administration of tumor-directed therapies using infectious
             agents (e.g., viruses, bacteria, etc).

        Pregnant women are excluded from this study, where pregnancy is confirmed by a positive
        urine or serum hCG laboratory test.

        Patients must be able to swallow pills.

        .

        Exclusion Criteria:

        Patients who cannot swallow indoximod pills are excluded.

        Patients previously treated with indoximod are excluded.

        Patients with DIPG who have been treated with any prior radiation or medical therapy are
        excluded.

        Midline glioma that does not include significant brain stem involvement is not considered
        DIPG for enrollment purposes, and is excluded.

        Patients with active systemic infection requiring treatment, including any HIV infection or
        toxoplasmosis, are excluded.

        Patients with active autoimmune disease that requires systemic therapy are excluded.

        Pregnant women are excluded
      
Maximum Eligible Age:21 Years
Minimum Eligible Age:3 Years
Eligible Gender:All
Healthy Volunteers:No

Primary Outcome Measures

Measure:8-month iRANO-PFS (Progression-Free Survival, defined by immune-adapted iRANO criteria)
Time Frame:Up to 5 years
Safety Issue:
Description:For patients with relapsed glioblastoma, medulloblastoma, or ependymoma.

Secondary Outcome Measures

Measure:Overall Survival (OS)
Time Frame:Up to 5 years
Safety Issue:
Description:
Measure:iRANO-PFS (Progression-Free Survival, defined by immune-adapted iRANO criteria)
Time Frame:Up to 5 years
Safety Issue:
Description:
Measure:Time to Regimen Failure (TTRF)
Time Frame:Up to 5 years
Safety Issue:
Description:

Details

Phase:Phase 2
Primary Purpose:Interventional
Overall Status:Recruiting
Lead Sponsor:Theodore S. Johnson

Trial Keywords

  • IDO
  • indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase
  • indoximod
  • pediatric
  • childhood
  • brain tumor
  • glioblastoma
  • medulloblastoma
  • ependymoma
  • diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma
  • DIPG
  • radiation
  • temozolomide
  • cyclophosphamide
  • etoposide
  • lomustine
  • immunotherapy
  • immune
  • central nervous system
  • CNS

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