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Lower-Dose Chemoradiation in Treating Patients With Early-Stage Anal Cancer, the DECREASE Study

NCT04166318

Description:

This phase II trial studies how well lower-dose chemotherapy plus radiation (chemoradiation) therapy works in comparison to standard-dose chemoradiation in treating patients with early-stage anal cancer. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as mitomycin, fluorouracil, and capecitabine, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to kill tumor cells and shrink tumors. Giving chemotherapy with radiation therapy may kill more tumor cells. This study may help doctors find out if lower-dose chemoradiation is as effective and has fewer side effects than standard-dose chemoradiation, which is the usual approach for treatment of this cancer type.

Related Conditions:
  • Anal Canal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Anal Margin Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Recruiting Status:

Recruiting

Phase:

Phase 2

Trial Eligibility

Document

Title

  • Brief Title: Lower-Dose Chemoradiation in Treating Patients With Early-Stage Anal Cancer, the DECREASE Study
  • Official Title: A Randomized Phase II Study De-Intensified ChemoRadiation for Early-Stage Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (DECREASE)

Clinical Trial IDs

  • ORG STUDY ID: EA2182
  • SECONDARY ID: NCI-2019-02259
  • SECONDARY ID: EA2182
  • SECONDARY ID: EA2182
  • SECONDARY ID: U10CA180820
  • NCT ID: NCT04166318

Conditions

  • Anal Basaloid Carcinoma
  • Anal Canal Cloacogenic Carcinoma
  • Anal Canal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Anal Margin Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Stage I Anal Cancer AJCC v8
  • Stage IIA Anal Cancer AJCC v8

Interventions

DrugSynonymsArms
CapecitabineRo 09-1978/000, XelodaArm A (standard-dose chemoradiation)
Fluorouracil5 Fluorouracil, 5 Fluorouracilum, 5 FU, 5-Fluoro-2,4(1H, 3H)-pyrimidinedione, 5-Fluorouracil, 5-Fluracil, 5-FU, 5FU, AccuSite, Carac, Fluoro Uracil, Fluouracil, Flurablastin, Fluracedyl, Fluracil, Fluril, Fluroblastin, Ribofluor, Ro 2-9757, Ro-2-9757Arm A (standard-dose chemoradiation)
MitomycinAmetycine, MITO, MITO-C, Mito-Medac, Mitocin, Mitocin-C, Mitolem, Mitomycin C, Mitomycin-C, Mitomycin-X, Mitomycine C, Mitosol, Mitozytrex, Mutamycin, Mutamycine, NCI-C04706Arm A (standard-dose chemoradiation)

Purpose

This phase II trial studies how well lower-dose chemotherapy plus radiation (chemoradiation) therapy works in comparison to standard-dose chemoradiation in treating patients with early-stage anal cancer. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as mitomycin, fluorouracil, and capecitabine, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to kill tumor cells and shrink tumors. Giving chemotherapy with radiation therapy may kill more tumor cells. This study may help doctors find out if lower-dose chemoradiation is as effective and has fewer side effects than standard-dose chemoradiation, which is the usual approach for treatment of this cancer type.

Detailed Description

      PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:

      I. To determine whether de-intensified chemoradiation for early stage squamous cell carcinoma
      of the anal canal (SCCA) is able to maintain excellent 2-year disease control of 85% or
      higher while improving anorectal health-related quality of life (HRQL), compared to
      standard-dose chemoradiation therapy (CRT), as measured by the change in the Fecal
      Incontinence Quality of Life scale (FIQoL) instrument coping/behavior domain from baseline to
      1 year.

      SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:

      I. To compare changes in patient-reported outcomes (as per Fecal Incontinence Severity Index
      [FISI], Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System [PROMIS], International
      Index of Erectile Function [IIEF], Sexual Function-Vaginal Changes Questionnaire [SVQ], and
      Vaginal Assessment Scale [VAS]/Vulvar Assessment Scale [VuAS] instruments) between the
      experimental and control arm.

      II. To compare patterns of failure (local and regional relapse versus distant; in-field
      versus out-of-field of radiation), disease control, and overall survival between experimental
      and control arm.

      III. To correlate vaginal dilator use during radiation delivery with sexual function.

      IV. To measure changes in serum total testosterone from baseline to up to 12 months after
      radiation.

      V. To validate the utility of image features of inguinal and pelvic lymph nodes obtained
      prior to treatment as a prognostic indicator that can identify patients with early-stage anal
      squamous cell carcinoma for whom treatment with de-intensified chemoradiation is appropriate.

      VI. To determine whether an online, interactive educational tool (eContour) may improve the
      quality of radiation target delineation for anal cancer.

      VII. To determine the incidence of and predictors for cardiovascular toxicity in patients
      receiving fluorouracil (5-FU) or capecitabine.

      OUTLINE: Patients are randomized to 1 of 2 arms.

      ARM A (STANDARD-DOSE CHEMORADIATION): Patients undergo 28 fractions of intensity-modulated
      radiation therapy (IMRT). Within 24 hours, patients also receive mitomycin intravenously (IV)
      over 30 minutes or less on day 1 and either fluorouracil IV over 24 hours on days 1-4 and
      29-32 or capecitabine orally (PO) twice daily (BID) 5 days per week (Monday - Friday) until
      completion of IMRT in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

      ARM B (DE-INTENSIFIED CHEMORADIATION): Patients undergo 20 or 23 fractions of IMRT. Within 24
      hours, patients also receive mitomycin IV over 30 minutes or less on day 1 and either
      fluorouracil IV over 24 hours on days 1-4 or capecitabine PO BID 5 days per week (Monday -
      Friday) until completion of IMRT in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable
      toxicity.

      After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up at 6 weeks, every 3 months for
      years 1-2, every 6 months for year 3, then annually for years 4-5.
    

Trial Arms

NameTypeDescriptionInterventions
Arm A (standard-dose chemoradiation)Active ComparatorPatients undergo 28 fractions of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Within 24 hours, patients also receive mitomycin IV over 30 minutes or less on day 1 and either fluorouracil IV over 24 hours on days 1-4 and 29-32 or capecitabine PO BID 5 days per week (Monday - Friday) until completion of IMRT in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
  • Capecitabine
  • Fluorouracil
  • Mitomycin
Arm B (de-intensified chemoradiation)ExperimentalPatients undergo 20 or 23 fractions of IMRT. Within 24 hours, patients also receive mitomycin IV over 30 minutes or less on day 1 and either fluorouracil IV over 24 hours on days 1-4 or capecitabine PO BID 5 days per week (Monday - Friday) until completion of IMRT in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
  • Capecitabine
  • Fluorouracil
  • Mitomycin

Eligibility Criteria

        Inclusion Criteria:

          -  Patient must have histologically proven T1-2N0M0 invasive anal canal or anal margin
             squamous cell carcinoma with tumors measuring =< 4 cm within 4 weeks prior to
             randomization. This may include tumors of non-keratinizing histology such as basaloid,
             transitional cell or cloacogenic histology. Patients with T1N0M0 anal margin squamous
             cell carcinoma who underwent surgical excision with negative margins are not eligible

          -  Patients who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative must not have lymph nodes
             that are radiographically-concerning for cancer involvement using computed tomography
             (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET)/CT-based criteria. Measurable disease is
             not required

               -  Patients who are HIV-negative and do not have lymph nodes classified as lymph
                  node positive, but are felt to be borderline for cancer involvement must undergo
                  central imaging review

                    -  NOTE: Patients requiring central imaging review will be pre-registered to
                       Arm S. Upon central confirmation of no lymph node involvement, eligible
                       patients may proceed to randomization on Step 1

               -  Patients will be considered to be lymph node (LN) positive and thereby not
                  eligible in this study if the lymph nodes meet any of the following criteria:

                    -  Mesorectal, presacral, internal iliac or obturator LN with:

                         -  Short axis measuring > 5 mm based on CT / magnetic resonance imaging
                            (MRI) OR

                         -  Morphologic features of irregular border or central necrosis if
                            assessed on MRI and LN measures > 3 mm OR

                         -  Fludeoxyglucose F-18 (FDG) uptake > blood pool (Deauville 3-5) based on
                            PET/CT

                    -  External Iliac and common Iliac:

                         -  Short-axis measuring > 1 cm based on CT / MRI OR

                         -  Morphologic features of irregular border or central necrosis based on
                            CT / MRI OR

                         -  FDG uptake > blood pool (Deauville 3-5) based on PET/CT

               -  Inguinal LN (superficial and deep) meeting any of the following criteria will be
                  ineligible unless an FNA is performed and resulting cytology is negative.

                    -  Morphologic features of irregular border or central necrosis based on CT /
                       MRI

                    -  FDG uptake > liver (Deauville 4) based on PET/CT.

                    -  Patients who are HIV-negative and have inguinal lymph nodes that do not meet
                       the above criteria must undergo fine needle aspiration and have negative
                       histology to be eligible.

          -  Patients who are HIV-positive must have

               -  A CD4 count >= 300

               -  Confirmation of no lymph node involvement by central real-time review of imaging

                    -  NOTE: Patients will be pre-registered to Arm S. Upon central confirmation of
                       no lymph node involvement, eligible patients may proceed to randomization on
                       Step 1

          -  Patient must have Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) - American College of
             Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) performance status of 0-2

          -  Patient must have no history of prior radiation or chemotherapy for this malignancy

          -  Patient must not have had prior potentially curative surgery (i.e. abdominal-perineal
             resection) for carcinoma of the anus

          -  Patients with excisional biopsy procedure are eligible provided there was tumor
             involvement of the anal canal and/or anal verge prior to resection

          -  Patient must not be receiving any other standard anti-cancer therapy or experimental
             agent concurrently with the study drugs

          -  Patient must not have intercurrent illness including, but not limited to, ongoing or
             active infection or psychiatric/social situations that, in the judgement of the
             investigator, would limit compliance with study requirements

          -  Patient must not have had significant cardiovascular disease including myocardial
             infarction, unstable angina, stroke, transient ischemic attack, symptomatic coronary
             artery disease, symptomatic congestive heart failure, or uncontrolled cardiac
             arrhythmia within 6 months of randomization

          -  Patient must not have a history of a different malignancy unless they have been
             disease-free for at least 2 years and are deemed by the investigator to be at low risk
             of recurrence

               -  Individuals with the following cancers are eligible if diagnosed and treated
                  within the past 5 years: cervical cancer in situ and basal cell or squamous cell
                  carcinoma of the skin

          -  Patient must not have active autoimmune or connective disease

          -  Patients who are on anti-coagulation with warfarin within 2 weeks prior to
             registration and are considering the use of capecitabine, must use an alternative
             anti-coagulant

               -  NOTE: Low molecular weight heparin is permitted provided the patient's
                  prothrombin time (PT)/international normalized ratio (INR) is < 1.5

          -  Patients who will receive capecitabine and are on Dilantin for a seizure disorder must
             have Dilantin levels checked weekly

          -  Hemoglobin > 10 g/dL (within 2 weeks prior to registration)

          -  Platelets >= 100,000/mm^3 (within 2 weeks prior to registration)

          -  Absolute neutrophil count >= 1500/mm^3 (within 2 weeks prior to registration)

          -  Serum creatinine must be < 1.5 X upper limit of normal (ULN), or calculated creatinine
             clearance must be > 60 ml/min (within 2 weeks prior to registration)

          -  Total bilirubin must be < 2 X ULN (within 2 weeks prior to registration)

          -  Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) =< 2.5 X institutional
             ULN (within 2 weeks prior to registration)

          -  Albumin >= 3.0 g/dL (within 2 weeks prior to registration)

          -  Women must not be pregnant or breast-feeding because the study treatment administered
             may cause harm to an unborn fetus or breastfeeding child. All females of childbearing
             potential must have a blood test or urine study within 2 weeks prior to registration
             to rule out pregnancy. A female of childbearing potential is any woman, regardless of
             sexual orientation or whether they have undergone tubal ligation, who meets the
             following criteria: 1) has achieved menarche at some point, 2) has not undergone a
             hysterectomy or bilateral oophorectomy; or 2) has not been naturally postmenopausal
             (amenorrhea following cancer therapy does not rule out childbearing potential) for at
             least 24 consecutive months (i.e., has had menses at any time in the preceding 24
             consecutive months)

          -  Women of childbearing potential and sexually active males must be strongly advised to
             use accepted and effective method(s) of contraception or to abstain from sexual
             intercourse for the duration of their participation in the study and for at least 6
             months after the completion of treatment
      
Maximum Eligible Age:N/A
Minimum Eligible Age:18 Years
Eligible Gender:All
Healthy Volunteers:No

Primary Outcome Measures

Measure:Disease control in the de-intensified chemoradiation therapy (CRT) arm
Time Frame:Up to 2 years
Safety Issue:
Description:An event is local-regional failure, distant metastasis and chemoradiation-related death. Will determine if de-intensified chemoradiation achieves 2-year disease control of 85% or higher while improving anorectal health-related quality of life (HRQL), compared to standard-dose CRT, as measured by the change in the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life scale (FIQoL) instrument coping/behavior domain from baseline to 1 year. The co-primary endpoints of disease control and FIQoL will be formally assessed in a hierarchical manner with disease control being assessed first. Will be estimated for all treatment arms using the Kaplan-Meier method (1958).

Secondary Outcome Measures

Measure:Changes in patient-reported outcomes - HRQL: Health Related Quality of Life FACT-G (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General)
Time Frame:Baseline up to 5 years
Safety Issue:
Description:Will compare changes as per HRQL: Health Related Quality of Life FACT-G (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General - Scoring: 0 - 32 with higher worse) between the experimental and control arm. Quality of life analyses, will be compared between arms using a two-sample independent t-tests at a significance level of 0.05 and appropriate longitudinal models will be evaluated to assess the trajectory of HRQL endpoints over time and to evaluate those trajectories between treatment arms. Overall score and change from baseline will be summarized using mean and standard deviation at each time point for each arm.
Measure:Changes in patient-reported outcomes - Fecal Incontinence Severity Index [FISI]
Time Frame:Baseline up to 5 years
Safety Issue:
Description:Will compare changes as per Fecal Incontinence Severity Index [FISI - Scoring: 0 - 61 with lower better] between the experimental and control arm.
Measure:Changes in patient-reported outcomes - International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF]: Erectile Dysfunction and Ejaculation Frequency.
Time Frame:Baseline up to 5 years
Safety Issue:
Description:Will compare changes as per International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF], Erectile Dysfunction: Scoring 7 - 35 with lower better. Ejaculation Frequency: Scoring 1 - 5 with lower better - between the experimental and control arm.
Measure:Changes in patient-reported outcomes - Orgasm ability/pleasure (PROMIS-Brief)
Time Frame:Baseline up to 5 years
Safety Issue:
Description:Will compare changes as per Orgasm ability/pleasure (PROMIS-Brief): scoring 2 - 10 with lower better - between the experimental and control arm. PROMIS = Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System
Measure:Changes in patient-reported outcomes - Anal Discomfort/pain (PROMIS- Full)
Time Frame:Baseline up to 5 years
Safety Issue:
Description:Will compare changes as per Anal Discomfort/pain (PROMIS- Full): scoring 3 - 15 with lower better. - between the experimental and control arm. PROMIS = Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System
Measure:Changes in patient-reported outcomes - Satisfaction with sex life (PROMIS-Brief):
Time Frame:Baseline up to 5 years
Safety Issue:
Description:Will compare changes as per Satisfaction with sex life (PROMIS-Brief) (scoring 2 - 10 with higher better) between the experimental and control arm. PROMIS = Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System
Measure:Changes in patient-reported outcomes - Therapeutic Aids for Sexual Function - Male.
Time Frame:Baseline up to 5 years
Safety Issue:
Description:Will compare changes as per Therapeutic Aids for Sexual Function - Male (Scoring 6 - 22 with lower better) between the experimental and control arm.
Measure:Changes in patient-reported outcomes - Therapeutic Aids for Sexual Function - Female.
Time Frame:Baseline up to 5 years
Safety Issue:
Description:Will compare changes as per Therapeutic Aids for Sexual Function - Female (Scoring 5 - 17 with lower better) between the experimental and control arm.
Measure:Changes in patient-reported outcomes - Sexual Function-Vaginal Changes Questionnaire [SVQ]
Time Frame:Baseline up to 5 years
Safety Issue:
Description:Will compare changes as per Sexual Function-Vaginal Changes Questionnaire [SVQ] (Scoring 5 - 26 with higher better) between the experimental and control arm.
Measure:Changes in patient-reported outcomes - Vaginal Assessment Scale [VAS]/Vulvar Assessment Scale [VuAS]
Time Frame:Baseline up to 5 years
Safety Issue:
Description:Will compare changes as per Vaginal Assessment Scale [VAS]/Vulvar Assessment Scale [VuAS] (Scoring:0 - 22 with lower better) between the experimental and control arm.
Measure:Patterns of failure (local and regional relapse versus distant; in-field versus out-of-field of radiation)
Time Frame:Up to 5 years
Safety Issue:
Description:Will be compared between experimental and control arm. The cumulative incidence method will be used to estimate local-regional and distant failure rates and the failure rates for the experimental treatment will be compared against the control using a failure specific log rank test.
Measure:Disease control
Time Frame:Up to 5 years
Safety Issue:
Description:Will be compared between experimental and control arm. Will be estimated for all treatment arms using the Kaplan-Meier method (1958).
Measure:Effect of vaginal dilator use during radiation delivery on sexual function
Time Frame:Up to 5 years
Safety Issue:
Description:Vaginal dilator use during radiation delivery will be correlated with sexual function.
Measure:Change in serum total testosterone
Time Frame:Baseline up to 12 months after radiation
Safety Issue:
Description:
Measure:Utility of image features of inguinal and pelvic lymph nodes obtained prior to treatment
Time Frame:Baseline
Safety Issue:
Description:Will be validated as a prognostic indicator that can identify patients with early-stage anal squamous cell carcinoma for whom treatment with de-intensified CRT is appropriate.
Measure:Effect of interactive educational tool (eContour)
Time Frame:Up to 5 years
Safety Issue:
Description:Will determine whether an online, interactive educational tool (eContour) may improve the quality of radiation target delineation for anal cancer.
Measure:Incidence of and predictors for cardiovascular toxicity in patients receiving fluorouracil or capecitabine
Time Frame:Up to 5 years
Safety Issue:
Description:Rates of grade 3+ adverse events (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [CTCAE], version [v.] 5) will be estimated using a binomial distribution along with their associated 95% confidence intervals and compared using Fisher's exact test between arms.

Details

Phase:Phase 2
Primary Purpose:Interventional
Overall Status:Recruiting
Lead Sponsor:ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group

Last Updated

May 20, 2020