1. Histological or pathological confirmation of malignancy with a KRAS-activating
2. Extent of disease Advanced disease for which no curable options are available.
Subjects who are not deemed candidates for these curative therapies will be eligible
if they meet other criteria.
3. Prior treatments
- Pancreatic adenocarcinoma Subjects must have progressed on or be intolerant of
combination therapy containing either 5-Fluorouracil/Capecitabine- and/or
gemcitabine-based therapy. Subjects who experienced disease recurrence while
receiving adjuvant chemotherapy or within three months of completing adjuvant
chemotherapy are eligible.
- Colorectal adenocarcinoma Subjects must have progressed on or be intolerant of
combination therapy containing 5-Fluorouracil/Capecitabine, and must have
received Oxaliplatin and Irinotecan.
- MSI-H/dMMR or NTRK-fusion positive tumors Subjects must have received prior
treatment with approved drugs for tumors harboring these aberrations.
- Histology agnostic cancers other than pancreatic and colorectal adenocarcinoma
(see above; Phase 1 and 2) Subjects must have progressed on or be intolerant of
all standard of care therapies that result in a median progression free survival
benefit of ≥ 8 weeks, or overall response rate of >5%.
4. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1
5. Age ≥18 years
6. Adequate hematological and end-organ function (test results from within 14 days prior
to initiation of study treatment):
- Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≥ 1.5 x 109/L without granulocyte
colony-stimulating factor support
- White blood cell (WBC) count ≥ 2.5 x 109/L
- Lymphocyte count ≥ 0.5 x 109/L
- Platelet count ≥ 100 x 109/L without transfusion
- Hemoglobin (Hgb) > 9.0 g/dL
- Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline
phosphatase (ALP) ≤ 2.5 x upper limit of normal (ULN), unless elevated secondary
to bilary obstruction from the pancreas mass and amenable to decompression prior
to initiation of therapy
- Serum total bilirubin ≤ 1.5 x ULN, unless in patients with known Gilbert disease
(≤ 3 x ULN), or unless elevated secondary to bilary obstruction from the pancreas
mass and amenable to decompression prior to administration of investigational
- Albumin ≥ 3.0g/dL
- Creatinine within ULN or calculated creatinine clearance (CrCl) >50 mL/min using
the Cockcroft-Gault formula
- International Normalized Ratio (INR) and activated partial thromboplastin time
(aPTT) ≤ 1.5 x ULN except for those who are on stable anticoagulation for at
least three months.
7. Measurable disease according to Immune-modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid
Tumors (IM-RECIST) and tumor accessible for fresh biopsy if ten adequate paired
biopsied specimens have not been procured (Phase 1)
8. Negative pregnancy test and agree to effective form of contraception.
9. Birth control agreement Fertile men must agree to use an effective method of birth
control during the study and for up to 3 months after the last dose of study drug.
10. Informed consent Participants must be willing and able to provide written informed
consent prior to any study-related procedures and to comply with all study
11. Ability to comply Participants must be able to comply with the study protocol,
according to the investigator's judgement.
12. Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) testing Participants must have undergone lower extremity
dopplers to rule out DVT within the screening period, and undergo therapeutic
anticoagulation if evidence of DVT is identified.
13. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) testing Patients deemed at increased risk of VTE based on
primary cancer, which includes pancreatic adenocarcinoma, gastric/GE junction
adenocarcinoma, or CNS malignancy, are to undergo prophylaxis anticoagulation with
enoxaparin. Subjects who are unable to receive enoxaparin ,but deemed at increased
risk of VTE will not be eligible and consultation with the Principal Investigator is
14. Anticoagulation treatment Subjects who are stable on full-dose anticoagulation
medication for at least 8 weeks are considered eligible. However, subjects who have an
increased clot burden on full-dose anticoagulation will be considered eligible only
with the approval of the Principal Investigator.
1. Prior treatment with investigational therapy. Participants may not have had any
treatments with investigational therapy within the 28 days prior to initiation of
2. Prior radiation therapy Participants may not have had radiation therapy within 2 weeks
prior to initiation of study treatment. Participants may not have had previous
radiotherapy to 25% or more of the bone marrow.
3. Prior Therapy Participants may not have had systemic chemotherapy within 14 days or 5
half-lives of the drug (whichever is longer) prior to initiation of study treatment.
In addition, the following prior treatment is not allowed during Phase 1 of the study:
- Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting MAP kinase pathway;
- Any pharmacological agents inhibiting the autophagy pathway.
In addition, the following prior treatment is not allowed during Phase 2 of the study:
- T-cell co-stimulating agents or immune checkpoint blockade therapies
- Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting Mitogen-Activated Protein (MAP)
- Any pharmacological agents inhibiting the autophagy pathway.
4. Adverse events from prior anti-cancer therapy Participants may not initiate treatment
if they have adverse events from prior anti-cancer therapy that have not resolved to
Grade ≤ 1 or better, with the exception of Grade ≤ 2 peripheral neuropathy or any
5. Patients currently receiving any other investigational agents
6. Concomitant treatment with other anti-neoplastic agents (hormone therapy acceptable)
7. Uncontrolled pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, or ascites
8. Patients with symptomatic brain metastases Subjects with untreated brain metastasis ≤
1 cm can be considered eligible if deemed asymptomatic by the investigator upon
consultation with the medical monitor, and do not require immediate radiation or
steroids. Subjects with brain metastasis that is treated and stable for 1 month may be
considered eligible if they are asymptomatic and on stable dose of steroids, or if
they do not require steroids following successful local therapy.
9. Uncontrolled hypercalcemia or symptomatic hypercalcemia requiring continued use of
10. Recent major surgery or significant traumatic injury Participants may not have
undergone major surgery or experienced significant traumatic injury within 14 days
prior to initiating study treatment, or be recovering from a procedure related to
adverse events of ≤ Grade 1.
11. Active or history of autoimmune disease or immune deficiency
With the following exceptions:
- Patients with a history of autoimmune-related hypothyroidism who are on stable
thyroid-replacement hormone are eligible for the study.
- Patients with controlled Type 1 diabetes mellitus who are on a stable insulin
regimen are eligible for the study.
- Patients with eczema, psoriasis, lichen simplex chronicus, or vitiligo with
dermatologic manifestations only are eligible for the study provided all of
following conditions are met:
- Rash must cover <10% of body surface area;
- Disease is well-controlled at baseline and requires only low-potency topical
- No occurrence of acute exacerbations of the underlying condition requiring
psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation, methotrexate, retinoids, biologic
agents, oral calcineurin inhibitors, or high-potency or oral corticosteroids
within the previous 12 months.
12. History of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, organizing
pneumonia, drug-induced pneumonitis, or idiopathic pneumonitis, or evidence of active
pneumonitis on screening chest computed tomography scan [history of radiation
pneumonitis in the radiation field (fibrosis) is permitted].
13. Positive for HIV at screening or any time prior to screening Patients without prior
positive HIV test result will undergo an HIV test at screening, unless not permitted
under local regulations.
14. Active Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (chronic or acute) Defined as having a
positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) test at screening. Patients with a past
or resolved HBV infection, defined as having a negative HBsAg test and a positive
total hepatitis B core antibody test at screening, are eligible for the study.
15. Active hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection Defined as positive HCV antibody test
followed by a positive HCV RNA test at screening. The HCV RNA test will be performed
only for patients who have a positive HCV antibody test.
16. Known clinically significant liver disease
17. Active tuberculosis
18. Severe infection Patients may not have had a severe infection within 4 weeks prior to
initiation of study treatment. This includes, but is not limited to, hospitalization
for complications of infection, bacteremia, or severe pneumonia. However, patients who
were admitted for biliary tract infection due to bile duct obstruction at time of
diagnosis must have a functioning biliary stent (as evidenced by declining total
bilirubin and ≤ 2 x ULN) and resolved infection (defined by normalization of elevated
white blood cell count, absence of signs of infection) and completion of an antibiotic
course (at least a seven-day course) prior to initiation of therapy.
19. Recent antibiotic treatment Patients may not have been treated with therapeutic oral
or intravenous (IV) antibiotics within 2 weeks prior to initiation of study treatment,
except for biliary tract infection due to bile duct obstruction from the pancreas
mass. Patients receiving prophylactic antibiotics are eligible for the study.
20. Significant cardiovascular disease Patient may not have significant cardiovascular
disease within 12 months prior to initiation of study treatment, seizure disorder,
uncontrolled hypertension, or unstable arrhythmia or unstable angina within 3 months
prior to initiation of study treatment.
21. Left ventricular ejection fraction below institutional lower limit of normal or below
50%, whichever is lower
22. Baseline QTcF ≥ 450 ms (males) or ≥ 470 ms (females)
23. Grade ≥ 3 hemorrhage or bleeding event within 28 days prior to initiation of study
24. Prior autologous stem cell, allogeneic stem cell, or solid organ transplantation
25. History of malignancy Patient may not have a history of malignancy other than PDA
within 2 years prior to screening, with the exception of those with a negligible risk
of metastasis or death.
26. Recent vaccination Patients may not have been treated with a live, attenuated vaccine
within 4 weeks prior to initiation of study treatment, or anticipate the need for such
a vaccine during treatment with atezolizumab or within 5 months after the last dose of
27. History of severe allergic anaphylactic reactions to chimeric or humanized antibodies
or fusion proteins
28. Known allergy or hypersensitivity to 4-aminoquinoline compounds or any of the study
29. Recent immunosuppressive treatment
Patients may not have been treated with systemic immunosuppressive medication within 2
weeks prior to initiation of study treatment, or anticipate the need for systemic
immunosuppressive medication during the course of the study, with the following
- Patients who received mineralocorticoids, corticosteroids for chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease or asthma, or low-dose corticosteroids for orthostatic
hypotension or adrenal insufficiency are eligible for the study if receiving
equivalent to < 10mg of prednisone daily.
- Patients who received a one-time pulse dose of systemic immunosuppressant
medication are eligible for the study after approval from the Principal
30. Inability to swallow medication or malabsorption condition that would alter the
absorption of orally administered medications
31. History of retinal pathology
Specifically, patients will be excluded from study participation if they currently are
known to have any risk factors for retinal vein occlusion (RVO), including:
- Glaucoma with intraocular pressure ≥ 21 mmHg;
- Grade ≥ 2 serum cholesterol;
- Grade ≥ 2 hypertriglyceridemia;
- Grade ≥ 2 uncontrolled hypertension (patients with a history of hypertension
controlled with anti-hypertensive medication to Grade ≤ 1 are eligible).
32. Pregnancy and breastfeeding
33. Other contraindicated conditions (opinion of treating investigator)
34. Concomitant strong CYP3A4 inhibitors and inducers Concomitant treatment is permitted
if the medication is not expected to interfere with the evaluation of safety or
efficacy of the study drug.
35. Uncontrolled psoriasis, porphyria, proximal myopathy or neuropathy
36. Severe depression Subjects hospitalized for depression within the past 2 years, or who
have prior suicidal attempts will be excluded.
37. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
38. History of connective tissue disorders
39. Subjects on greater than once daily dose of antacid therapy
40. Concomitant use of any of the following drugs:
- Pharmacological agents known to prolong QT interval
- Mefloquine or other agents which may lower the convulsive threshold