-Histologically or cytologically confirmed high-grade neuroendocrine tumor that has
progressed on first line therapy, excluding small cell lung cancer (SCLC). High grade
includes any neuroendocrine neoplasm with a Ki-67 of >=20% or with mitotic count of more
than 20 mitoses per high power field or any poorly differentiated neoplasm or any neoplasm
lacking these that is deemed high grade by pathology consensus, based on other markers
(necrosis or IHC demonstrating p53 or RB mutation). This includes:
- High grade well differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms
- Transformed NENs from a lower to a higher grade (patient may have some low grade and
some high grade NENs)
- High grade neoplasms with significant expression of neuroendocrine markers such as
synaptophysin, chromogranin or INSM-1 or unknown origin neoplasms with gene expression
signatures consistent with neuroendocrine lineage (as per validated tissue of origin
testing, such as CancerType ID, after pathology consensus).
- Mixed neuroendocrine and non-neuroendocrine neoplasms (MiNEN), including MiNEN per WHO
and mixed neoplasms not fulfilling criteria of MiNEN. The neuroendocrine component
would need to be a high-grade neuroendocrine tumor as documented by pathology review.
Note: Up to two prostate NEC patients (primary diagnosis, not transformed adenocarcinoma)
will be enrolled in the first phase.
Note: For ambiguous cases, will consult with a designated expert pathologist.
- Measurable disease defined as lesions that can be accurately measured in at least one
dimension (longest diameter to be recorded) as ≥ 10 mm with CT scan, as ≥ 20 mm by
chest x-ray, or ≥ 10 mm with calipers by clinical exam.
- Concurrent or prior somatostatin analogue therapy is allowed (for well differentiated
high grade neoplasms). Prior use investigational agents is allowed.
- At least 18 years of age.
- ECOG performance status ≤ 1 (Karnofsky ≥ 80%)
- Normal bone marrow and organ function as defined below:
- Absolute neutrophil count ≥ 1,500/mm3 without granulocyte colony-stimulating
- White blood cell count ≥ 2,500/mm3
- Platelets ≥ 100,000/mm3 without transfusion
- Hemoglobin ≥ 9.0 g/dL
- AST(SGOT), ALT(SGPT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) ≤ 3.0 x IULN; ALP ≤ 5.0 x
IULN with documented bone metastases
- Total bilirubin ≤ 1.5 x IULN (for subjects with gilbert's disease ≤ 3.0 x IULN)
- Serum albumin ≥ 2.8 g/dL
- Serum creatinine ≤ 2.0 x IULN or calculated creatinine clearance ≥ 30 mL/min by
- Urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPCR) ≤ 1 mg/mg (≤ 113.2 mg/mmol)
- PT/INR or PTT < 1.3 x IULN (within 7 days before the first dose of study
- Corrected QT interval calculated by the Fridericia formula (QTcF) ≤ 500 ms (by ECG
within 28 days before the first dose of study treatment).
- Recovery to baseline or ≤ grade 1 from toxicities related to any prior treatments,
unless adverse events are clinically nonsignificant and/or stable on supportive
- The effects of cabozantinib on the developing human fetus are unknown. For this
reason, women of childbearing potential and men must agree to use adequate
contraception (e.g. barrier methods, including male condom, female condom, or
diaphragm with spermicidal gel) prior to study entry, for the duration of study
participation, and for 4 months after the last dose of study treatment. Should a woman
become pregnant or suspect she is pregnant while participating in this study, she must
inform her treating physician immediately. Men treated or enrolled on this protocol
must also agree to use adequate contraception prior to the study, for the duration of
the study, and for at least 4 months after the last dose of study treatment.
- Ability to understand and willingness to sign an IRB approved written informed consent
document (or that of legally authorized representative, if applicable).
- A history of other malignancy with the exception of malignancies for which all
treatment was completed at least 2 years before registration and the patient has no
evidence of disease. Allowed are superficial skin cancers, or localized, low grade
tumors deemed cured and not treated with systemic therapy at any point in the prior
- Currently receiving any other investigational agents. Prior use of investigational
agents is allowed.
- Prior treatment with cabozantinib.
- Receipt of any small molecule kinase inhibitor (including investigational kinase
inhibitor) within 2 weeks before the first dose of study treatment.
- Receipt of any type of cytotoxic, biologic, or other systemic anticancer therapy
(including investigational) within 4 weeks before first dose of study treatment.
- Radiation therapy for bone metastasis within 2 weeks, any other radiation therapy
within 4 weeks before the first dose of study treatment. Systemic treatment with
radionuclides within 6 weeks before the first dose of study treatment. Patients with
clinically relevant ongoing complications from prior radiation therapy are not
- Patients with treated brain metastases are eligible if there is no evidence of
progression for at least 4 weeks after CNS-directed treatment, as ascertained by
clinical examination and brain imaging (MRI or CT scan) during the screening period.
Eligible subjects must be neurologically asymptomatic and without corticosteroid
treatment at the time of first dose of study treatment.
- Inability to swallow tablets.
- A history of allergic reactions attributed to compounds of similar chemical or
biologic composition to cabozantinib or other agents used in the study.
- Concomitant anticoagulation with coumarin agents (e.g. warfarin), direct thrombin
inhibitors (e.g., dabigatran), direct factor Xa inhibitor betrixaban, or platelet
inhibitors (e.g. clopidogrel). Allowed anticoagulants are the following:
- Prophylactic use of low-dose aspirin for cardio-protection (per local applicable
guidelines) and l ow-dose low molecular weight heparins (LMWH)
- Therapeutic doses of LMWH or anticoagulation with direct factor Xa inhibitors
rivaroxaban, edoxaban, or apixaban in subjects without known brain metastases who
are on a stable dose of the anticoagulant for at least 1 week before first dose
of study treatment without clinically significant hemorrhagic complications from
the anticoagulation regimen or the tumor.
- Uncontrolled, significant intercurrent or recent illness including, but not limited
to, the following conditions:
- Cardiovascular disorders:
- Congestive heart failure New York Heart Association Class 3 or 4, unstable
angina pectoris, serious cardiac arrhythmias.
- Uncontrolled hypertension defined as sustained blood pressure (BP) > 140 mm
Hg systolic or > 90 mm Hg diastolic despite optimal antihypertensive
- Stroke (including transient ischemic attack [TIA]), myocardial infarction
(MI), or other ischemic event, or thromboembolic event (e.g., deep venous
thrombosis, pulmonary embolism) within 6 months before first dose of study
- Subjects with a diagnosis of incidental, subsegmental PE or DVT within
6 months are allowed if stable, asymptomatic, and treated with
anticoagulation for at least 1 week before first dose of study
- Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders including those associated with a high risk of
perforation or fistula formation:
- The subject has evidence of tumor invading the GI tract, active peptic ulcer
disease, inflammatory bowel disease (e.g., Crohn's disease), diverticulitis,
cholecystitis, symptomatic cholangitis or appendicitis, acute pancreatitis,
acute obstruction of the pancreatic duct or common bile duct, or gastric
- Abdominal fistula, GI perforation, bowel obstruction, or intra-abdominal
abscess within 6 months before first dose.
Note: Complete healing of an intra-abdominal abscess must be confirmed before first dose.
- Clinically significant hematuria, hematemesis, or hemoptysis of > 0.5 teaspoon (2.5
ml) of red blood, or other history of significant bleeding (eg, pulmonary hemorrhage)
within 12 weeks before first dose.
- Cavitating pulmonary lesion(s) or known endotracheal or endobronchial disease
- Lesions invading or encasing any major blood vessels.
- Other clinically significant disorders that would preclude safe study participation.
- Serious non-healing wound/ulcer/bone fracture.
- Uncompensated/symptomatic hypothyroidism.
- Moderate to severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh B or C).
- Major surgery (e.g. GI surgery removal or biopsy of brain metastasis) within
8 weeks before first dose of study treatment. Complete wound healing from
major surgery must have occurred 1 month before first dose and from minor
surgery (e.g., simple excision, tooth extraction) at least 10 days before
first dose. Patients with clinically relevant ongoing complications from
prior surgery are not eligible.
- Pregnant and/or breastfeeding. Women of childbearing potential must have a
negative pregnancy test within 15 days of study entry. Women of childbearing
potential are defined as premenopausal females capable of becoming pregnant
(i.e., females who have had any evidence of menses in the past 12 months,
with the exception of those who had prior hysterectomy). However, women who
have been amenorrheic for 12 or more months are still considered to be of
childbearing potential if the amenorrhea is possibly due to prior
chemotherapy, antiestrogens, low body weight, ovarian suppression, or other
- Patients with HIV are eligible unless their CD4+ T-cell counts are < 350
cells/mcL or they have a history of AIDS-defining opportunistic infection
within the 12 months prior to registration. Concurrent treatment with
effective ART according to DHHS treatment guidelines is recommended.
Recommend exclusion of specific ART agents based on predicted drug-drug
interactions (i.e. for sensitive CYP3A4 substrates, concurrent strong CYP3A4
inhibitors (ritonavir and cobicistat) or inducers (efavirenz) should be