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Using Biomarkers to Help Guide Safe Immunotherapy Discontinuation in Patients With Unresectable Stage IIIB-IV Melanoma, The PET-Stop Trial

NCT04462406

Description:

This phase II trial investigates how well biomarkers on PET/CT imaging drive early discontinuation of anti-PD-1 therapy in patients with stage IIIB-IV melanoma that cannot be removed by surgery (unresectable). Anti-PD-1 therapy has become a standard therapy option for patients with unresectable melanoma. This trial is being done to determine if doctors can safely shorten the use of standard of care anti-PD1 therapy for melanoma by using biomarkers seen on PET/CT imaging and tumor biopsy.

Related Conditions:
  • Melanoma
Recruiting Status:

Recruiting

Phase:

Phase 2

Trial Eligibility

Document

Title

  • Brief Title: Using Biomarkers to Help Guide Safe Immunotherapy Discontinuation in Patients With Unresectable Stage IIIB-IV Melanoma, The PET-Stop Trial
  • Official Title: A Phase II Study of Biomarker Driven Early Discontinuation of Anti-PD-1 Therapy in Patients With Advanced Melanoma (PET-Stop)

Clinical Trial IDs

  • ORG STUDY ID: EA6192
  • SECONDARY ID: NCI-2020-04463
  • SECONDARY ID: EA6192
  • SECONDARY ID: EA6192
  • SECONDARY ID: U10CA180820
  • NCT ID: NCT04462406

Conditions

  • Advanced Melanoma
  • Clinical Stage III Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8
  • Clinical Stage IV Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8
  • Melanoma of Unknown Primary
  • Pathologic Stage IIIB Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8
  • Pathologic Stage IIIC Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8
  • Pathologic Stage IIID Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8
  • Pathologic Stage IV Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v8
  • Unresectable Acral Lentiginous Melanoma
  • Unresectable Melanoma
  • Unresectable Mucosal Melanoma

Interventions

DrugSynonymsArms
IpilimumabAnti-Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated Antigen-4 Monoclonal Antibody, BMS-734016, MDX-010, MDX-CTLA4, YervoyStandard of Care (nivolumab, pembrolizumab, ipilimumab)
NivolumabBMS-936558, MDX-1106, NIVO, ONO-4538, OpdivoArm B (nivolumab, pembrolizumab, ipilimumab)
PembrolizumabKeytruda, Lambrolizumab, MK-3475, SCH 900475Arm B (nivolumab, pembrolizumab, ipilimumab)

Purpose

This phase II trial investigates how well biomarkers on PET/CT imaging drive early discontinuation of anti-PD-1 therapy in patients with stage IIIB-IV melanoma that cannot be removed by surgery (unresectable). Anti-PD-1 therapy has become a standard therapy option for patients with unresectable melanoma. This trial is being done to determine if doctors can safely shorten the use of standard of care anti-PD1 therapy for melanoma by using biomarkers seen on PET/CT imaging and tumor biopsy.

Detailed Description

      PRIMARY OBJECTIVE:

      I. To determine the 12 month event free survival (EFS) rate following discontinuation of
      anti-PD-1 therapy in patients with disease control and negative fludeoxyglucose F-18 (FDG)-
      positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scan or biopsy for residual
      disease after 12 months of anti-PD-1 therapy (Arm A).

      SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:

      I. To determine rates of pathologic response in patients with tumor biopsies where positive
      hypermetabolic activity was present on FDG-PET/CT scan after 12 months of anti-PD-1 therapy
      (Arm B).

      II. To determine the overall 24 month EFS. III. To determine overall survival from start of
      anti-PD-1 therapy. IV. To determine percentage for patients who remain on treatment beyond 12
      months because of positive FDG-PET/CT scan and positive biopsy for residual disease (or
      unable to obtain a biopsy).

      V. To determine incidence rates of treatment-related adverse events beyond 12 months from
      start of treatment in patients who discontinue anti-PD-1 therapy at 12 months and in patients
      who continue anti-PD-1 therapy beyond 12 months (Arm A versus [vs.] Arm B).

      EXPLORATORY OBJECTIVES:

      I. To assess agreement in determining FDG-PET/CT positivity between the local site read and
      central review.

      II. To determine if metabolic response on serial FDG-PET/CT from pre-therapy to 12 months of
      anti-PD-1 therapy, as determined centrally by various criteria, is associated with EFS.

      III. To determine if metabolic response on serial FDG-PET/CT from 12 to 24 months after start
      of anti-PD-1 therapy, as determined centrally by various criteria, is associated with EFS.

      BIOMARKER OBJECTIVE:

      I. To bank tumor samples and peripheral blood for future biomarker studies.

      OUTLINE: Patients continue their standard of care anti-PD-1 therapy and are then assigned to
      1 of 2 arms.

      STANDARD OF CARE: Treatment may consist of the following regimens: 1) nivolumab intravenously
      (IV) over 30 minutes every 2 weeks (Q2W) or every 4 weeks (Q4W); 2) pembrolizumab IV over 30
      minutes every 3 weeks (Q3W) or every 6 weeks (Q6W); 3) nivolumab IV over 30 minutes and
      ipilimumab IV Q3W for 4 doses followed by nivolumab IV over 30 minutes Q2W or Q4W; or 4)
      pembrolizumab IV over 30 minutes and ipilimumab IV Q3W for 4 doses followed by pembrolizumab
      IV over 30 minutes Q3W or Q6W. Treatment continues until 52 weeks from start of standard of
      care anti-PD-1 therapy in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

      ARM A: Patients with a negative FDG-PET/CT scan or a positive FDG-PET/CT scan but with a
      negative biopsy for viable tumor discontinue the anti-PD-1 therapy and undergo active
      surveillance.

      ARM B: Patients with a positive FDG-PET/CT scan and positive biopsy for viable tumor or a
      positive FDG-PET/CT scan and biopsy not performed continue their standard of care anti-PD-1
      therapy for 12 months in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

      After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up through week 97 and then every
      3 months for up to 5 years.
    

Trial Arms

NameTypeDescriptionInterventions
Arm A (active surveillance)ExperimentalPatients with a negative FDG-PET/CT scan or a positive FDG-PET/CT scan but with a negative biopsy for viable tumor discontinue the anti-PD-1 therapy and undergo active surveillance.
    Arm B (nivolumab, pembrolizumab, ipilimumab)Active ComparatorPatients with a positive FDG-PET/CT scan and positive biopsy for viable tumor or a positive FDG-PET/CT scan and biopsy not performed continue their standard of care anti-PD-1 therapy for 12 months in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
    • Nivolumab
    • Pembrolizumab
    Standard of Care (nivolumab, pembrolizumab, ipilimumab)OtherPatients continue their standard of care anti-PD-1 therapy. Treatment may consist of the following regimens: 1) nivolumab IV over 30 minutes Q2W or Q4W; 2) pembrolizumab IV over 30 minutes Q3W or Q6W; 3) nivolumab IV over 30 minutes and ipilimumab IV Q3W for 4 doses followed by nivolumab IV over 30 minutes Q2W or Q4W; or 4) pembrolizumab IV over 30 minutes and ipilimumab IV Q3W for 4 doses followed by pembrolizumab IV over 30 minutes Q3W or Q6W. Treatment continues until 52 weeks from start of standard of care anti-PD-1 therapy in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
    • Ipilimumab
    • Nivolumab
    • Pembrolizumab

    Eligibility Criteria

            Inclusion Criteria:
    
              -  STEP 0 PRE-REGISTRATION INCLUSION CRITERIA
    
              -  Patient must have active advanced melanoma, defined as unresectable stage IIIB-IV by
                 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 8th edition
    
              -  Patient must have melanoma originating from cutaneous, acral-lentiginous, or mucosal
                 primary sites. Patients with melanoma of unknown primary site are eligible. Patients
                 must not have melanoma from an ocular primary site
    
              -  Patient must have had measurable disease by immune related Response Evaluation
                 Criteria in Solid Tumors (imRECIST) prior to start of initial anti-PD-1 therapy
    
              -  Patient must be actively receiving standard of care anti-PD-1 therapy, currently be 52
                 weeks (+/- 2 weeks) from start of anti-PD-1 therapy, and have not experienced a
                 toxicity that prevents them from continuing on therapy. Permitted systemic anti-PD-1
                 therapy regimens include:
    
                   -  Nivolumab 240 mg IV every (Q)2weeks or 480 mg IV Q4weeks
    
                   -  Pembrolizumab 200 mg IV Q3weeks or 400 mg IV Q6weeks
    
                   -  Nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg IV Q3weeks induction x 4 doses,
                      followed by nivolumab 240 mg IV Q2weeks or 480 mg IV Q4weeks maintenance
    
                   -  Nivolumab 3 mg/kg plus Ipilimumab 1 mg/kg IV Q3weeks induction x 4 doses,
                      followed by nivolumab 240 mg IV Q2weeks or 480 mg IV Q4weeks maintenance
    
                   -  Pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg (or 200 mg flat dose) plus Ipilimumab 1 mg/kg IV Q3weeks
                      induction x 4 doses, followed by pembrolizumab 200 mg IV Q3weeks or 400 mg IV
                      Q6weeks maintenance
    
              -  Patient must have an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of
                 0-2
    
              -  Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients on effective anti-retroviral
                 therapy with undetectable viral load within 6 months are eligible for this trial.
                 Patients with detectable viral loads are excluded as it is unclear if these patients
                 have a low risk of melanoma progression off anti-PD-1 treatment
    
              -  For patients with evidence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the HBV viral
                 load must be undetectable on suppressive therapy, if indicated
    
              -  Patients with a history of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection must have been treated
                 and cured. For patients with HCV infection who are currently on treatment, they are
                 eligible if they have an undetectable HCV viral load
    
              -  Patients with a prior or concurrent malignancy whose natural history or treatment does
                 not have the potential to interfere with the safety or efficacy assessment of the
                 investigational regimen are eligible for this trial
    
              -  Patients with known history or current symptoms of cardiac disease, or history of
                 treatment with cardiotoxic agents, should have a clinical risk assessment of cardiac
                 function using the New York Heart Association Functional Classification. To be
                 eligible for this trial, patients should be class 2B or better
    
              -  Patient must have experienced complete response, partial response, or stable disease
                 on restaging CT scans by imRECIST that is maintained on restaging scans obtained at
                 week 52 (+/- 2 weeks) from start of initial anti-PD-1 therapy
    
              -  Patient must have completed an FDG-PET/CT scan at week 52 (+/- 2 weeks) from start of
                 initial anti-PD-1 therapy
    
                   -  Patients with PET/CT positive for hypermetabolic lesions: If a core needle, punch
                      or excisional biopsy and pathological review of a representative lesion was not
                      performed prior to pre-registration (Step 0) must either:
    
                        -  Be amenable to undergo a biopsy. Patient must not be on anticoagulation
                           therapy or, if on anti-coagulation therapy, patient must be able to hold
                           treatment for a biopsy procedure (core needle, punch or excisional biopsy).
                           Anti-coagulation therapy is defined as low molecular weight heparin,
                           warfarin, factor Xa inhibitor, or direct thrombin inhibitor
    
                        -  Have documentation of inability to perform the biopsy due to feasibility or
                           safety concerns
    
              -  Leukocytes >= 3,000/mcL (obtained =< 4 weeks prior to protocol registration)
    
              -  Absolute neutrophil count >= 1,500/mcL (obtained =< 4 weeks prior to protocol
                 registration)
    
              -  Platelets >= 100,000/mcL (obtained =< 4 weeks prior to protocol registration)
    
              -  Total bilirubin =< institutional upper limit of normal (ULN) (patients with history of
                 Gilbert's syndrome are permitted to have a total bilirubin > 1.5 x institutional ULN)
                 (obtained =< 4 weeks prior to protocol registration)
    
              -  Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase
                 [SGOT])/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase [SGPT])
                 =< 2.5 x institutional ULN (obtained =< 4 weeks prior to protocol registration)
    
              -  Creatinine =< 1.5 x institutional ULN (obtained =< 4 weeks prior to protocol
                 registration)
    
              -  STEP 1 REGISTRATION INCLUSION CRITERIA
    
              -  Patient met all eligibility criteria outlined above
    
              -  Patient must register to Step 1 within 4 weeks of registration to Step 0
    
              -  Patients must meet one of the following criteria:
    
                   -  Patient had no positive hypermetabolic lesions on the week 52 FDG-PET/CT.
    
                   -  Patients with positive hypermetabolic lesion(s) on the week 52 FDG-PET/CT
                      (positive hypermetabolic = standard uptake volume [SUV] > pooled mediastinal
                      blood), one of the following must have occurred:
    
                        -  A representative lesion was biopsied (core needle, punch or excisional
                           biopsy) within 14 days of registration to Step 0 and subsequent pathology
                           review performed to determine the presence or absence of viable tumor
    
                        -  Documentation is present that the patient is not able to undergo biopsy of a
                           hypermetabolic lesion due to feasibility or safety concerns, i.e., the
                           lesion location that is not amenable to biopsy
    
            Exclusion Criteria:
    
              -  STEP 0 PRE-REGISTRATION EXCLUSION CRITERIA
    
              -  Patient must not be receiving concurrent anti-tumor therapies in addition to the
                 standard of care anti-PD-1 regimens. Patients who are receiving bisphosphonates and
                 RANKL inhibitors for management of bone metastases are eligible
    
              -  Patient must not have brain metastases
    
              -  Women must not be pregnant or breast-feeding due to potential harm to an unborn fetus
                 and possible risk for adverse events in nursing infants with the anti-PD-1 regimens
                 being used. All females of childbearing potential must have a blood test or urine
                 study within 14 days prior to registration to rule out pregnancy. A female of
                 childbearing potential is defined as any woman, regardless of sexual orientation or
                 whether they have undergone tubal ligation, who meets the following criteria: 1) has
                 achieved menarche at some point, 2) has not undergone a hysterectomy or bilateral
                 oophorectomy; or 3) has not been naturally postmenopausal (amenorrhea following cancer
                 therapy does not rule out childbearing potential) for at least 24 consecutive months
                 (i.e., has had menses at any time in the preceding 24 consecutive months)
    
              -  Women of childbearing potential and sexually active males must not conceive or father
                 children by using accepted and effective method(s) of contraception or by abstaining
                 from sexual intercourse from the time of study registration and continuing until at
                 least 5 months after the last dose of anti-PD-1 treatment for female patients and for
                 at least 7 months after the last dose of anti-PD-1 treatment for male patients who are
                 sexually active with a women of childbearing potential (WOCBP)
          
    Maximum Eligible Age:N/A
    Minimum Eligible Age:18 Years
    Eligible Gender:All
    Healthy Volunteers:No

    Primary Outcome Measures

    Measure:Event free survival (EFS) rate (Arm A)
    Time Frame:At 12 months
    Safety Issue:
    Description:Event is defined as recurrence, progression or melanoma-specific death. The distribution of EFS will be evaluated using the method of Kaplan-Meier.

    Secondary Outcome Measures

    Measure:Rates of pathologic response (Arm B)
    Time Frame:After 12 months of anti-PD-1 therapy
    Safety Issue:
    Description:Will be defined as the absence of residual viable melanoma in the resected metastasis site as assessed on local pathology review. Pathologic response rate will be estimated in patients with tumor biopsies where positive hypermetabolic activity was present on FDG-PET/CT scan after 12 month of anti-PD-1 therapy on Arm B. 95% confidence intervals (CIs) will be provided for all estimated rates.
    Measure:EFS
    Time Frame:At 24 months
    Safety Issue:
    Description:The distribution of EFS will be evaluated using the method of Kaplan-Meier.
    Measure:Overall survival
    Time Frame:At 24 months
    Safety Issue:
    Description:Overall 24 month EFS for patients in Arm B will be summarized.
    Measure:Percentage of patients who remain on treatment beyond 12 months
    Time Frame:Up to 5 years
    Safety Issue:
    Description:Will determine the percentage of patients who remain on treatment beyond 12 months because of positive fludeoxyglucose F-18 (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scan and positive biopsy for residual disease (or unable to obtain a biopsy).
    Measure:Incidence rates of treatment-related adverse events -12 months from start of treatment in patients who discontinue anti-PD-1 therapy at 12 months (Arm A) and in patients who continue anti-PD-1 therapy beyond 12 months (Arm B)
    Time Frame:Up to 5 years
    Safety Issue:
    Description:95% CIs will be provided for all estimated rates.

    Details

    Phase:Phase 2
    Primary Purpose:Interventional
    Overall Status:Recruiting
    Lead Sponsor:ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group

    Last Updated

    August 27, 2020