NCI Definition: A malignant tumor arising from epithelial cells. Carcinomas that arise from glandular epithelium are called adenocarcinomas, those that arise from squamous epithelium are called squamous cell carcinomas, and those that arise from transitional epithelium are called transitional cell carcinomas. Morphologically, the malignant epithelial cells may display abnormal mitotic figures, anaplasia, and necrosis. Carcinomas are graded by the degree of cellular differentiation as well, moderately, or poorly differentiated. Carcinomas invade the surrounding tissues and tend to metastasize to other anatomic sites. Lung carcinoma, skin carcinoma, breast carcinoma, colon carcinoma, and prostate carcinoma are the most frequently seen carcinomas. [1]

Carcinomas most frequently harbor alterations in TP53, APC, KRAS, PIK3CA, and KMT2D [2].

Most Commonly Altered Genes in Carcinoma

TP53 Mutation, TP53 Missense, TP53 c.217-c.1178 Missense, APC Mutation, and KRAS Mutation are the most common alterations in carcinoma [2].

Top Alterations in Carcinoma

Significant Genes in Carcinoma


MLH1 +

MLH3 +

MSH2 +

MSH3 +

MSH6 +

PMS1 +

PMS2 +

Disease Details

Malignant Epithelial Neoplasm, Malignant Epithelioma, Malignant Epithelial Tumor, Carcinoma, NOS, Epithelial Carcinoma, CARCINOMA, MALIGNANT, Epithelioma Malignant
Cell Type Cancer
Thymic Carcinoma, Ureter Carcinoma, Undifferentiated Carcinoma, Cervical Carcinoma, Metastatic Carcinoma in the Adrenal Medulla, Transitional Cell Carcinoma, Head and Neck Carcinoma, Endometrial Carcinoma, Choroid Plexus Carcinoma, Lipid-Rich Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Breast Carcinoma, Pleomorphic Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma, Thyroid Gland Carcinoma, Adenocarcinoma, Acinar Cell Carcinoma, Large Cell Carcinoma, Adenosquamous Carcinoma, Lung Carcinoma, Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma, NOS, Digestive System Carcinoma, Carcinoma In Situ, Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma, Ovarian Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Bladder Carcinoma, Metaplastic Carcinoma, Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma, Papillary Carcinoma, Malignant Myoepithelioma, Retroperitoneal Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma, Sarcomatoid Carcinoma, Vulvar/Vaginal Carcinoma, Granular Cell Carcinoma, Kidney Carcinoma, Urethral Carcinoma, Skin Carcinoma, Prostate Carcinoma, and Tracheal Carcinoma


1. National Cancer Institute. NCI Thesaurus Version 18.11d. https://ncit.nci.nih.gov/ncitbrowser/ [2018-08-28]. [2018-09-21].

2. The AACR Project GENIE Consortium. AACR Project GENIE: powering precision medicine through an international consortium. Cancer Discovery. 2017;7(8):818-831. Dataset Version 6. This dataset does not represent the totality of the genetic landscape; see paper for more information.

3. All assertions and clinical trial landscape data are curated from primary sources. You can read more about the curation process here.