NCI Definition: A malignant tumor arising from epithelial cells. Carcinomas that arise from glandular epithelium are called adenocarcinomas, those that arise from squamous epithelium are called squamous cell carcinomas, and those that arise from transitional epithelium are called transitional cell carcinomas. Morphologically, the malignant epithelial cells may display abnormal mitotic figures, anaplasia, and necrosis. Carcinomas are graded by the degree of cellular differentiation as well, moderately, or poorly differentiated. Carcinomas invade the surrounding tissues and tend to metastasize to other anatomic sites. Lung carcinoma, skin carcinoma, breast carcinoma, colon carcinoma, and prostate carcinoma are the most frequently seen carcinomas. [1]

Carcinomas most frequently harbor alterations in TP53, KRAS, PIK3CA, APC, and CDKN2A [2].

Most Commonly Altered Genes in Carcinoma

TP53 Mutation, TP53 Missense, TP53 c.217-c.1178 Missense, KRAS Mutation, and KRAS Exon 2 Mutation are the most common alterations in carcinoma [2].

Top Alterations in Carcinoma

Significant Genes in Carcinoma


Disease Details

Malignant Epithelial Tumor, Carcinoma, NOS, Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma, Epithelioma Malignant, Malignant Epithelial Neoplasm, Malignant Epithelioma, Epithelial Carcinoma, CARCINOMA, MALIGNANT
Malignant Solid Tumor
Head and Neck Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Sarcomatoid Carcinoma, Breast Carcinoma, Carcinoma of Unknown Primary, Pleomorphic Carcinoma, Endometrial Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Cribriform Carcinoma, Thyroid Gland Carcinoma, Fallopian Tube Carcinoma, Undifferentiated Carcinoma, Kidney Carcinoma, Acinar Cell Carcinoma, Carcinoma In Situ, Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma, NOS, Penile Carcinoma, Lung Carcinoma, Ovarian Carcinoma, Lipid-Rich Carcinoma, Urethral Carcinoma, Tracheal Carcinoma, Transitional Cell Carcinoma, Malignant Myoepithelioma, Granular Cell Carcinoma, Adenocarcinoma, Metastatic Carcinoma in the Adrenal Medulla, Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma, Adenosquamous Carcinoma, Epithelial-Myoepithelial Carcinoma, Thymic Carcinoma, Papillary Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma, Large Cell Carcinoma, Retroperitoneal Carcinoma, Vulvar/Vaginal Carcinoma, Bladder Carcinoma, Skin Carcinoma, Metaplastic Carcinoma, Prostate Carcinoma, Ureter Carcinoma, Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma, Digestive System Carcinoma, Choroid Plexus Carcinoma, and Cervical Carcinoma


1. National Cancer Institute. NCI Thesaurus Version 18.11d. https://ncit.nci.nih.gov/ncitbrowser/ [2018-08-28]. [2018-09-21].

2. The AACR Project GENIE Consortium. AACR Project GENIE: powering precision medicine through an international consortium. Cancer Discovery. 2017;7(8):818-831. Dataset Version 8. This dataset does not represent the totality of the genetic landscape; see paper for more information.

3. All assertions and clinical trial landscape data are curated from primary sources. You can read more about the curation process here.