Associated Genetic Biomarkers
NCI Definition: A malignant tumor arising from epithelial cells. Carcinomas that arise from glandular epithelium are called adenocarcinomas, those that arise from squamous epithelium are called squamous cell carcinomas, and those that arise from transitional epithelium are called transitional cell carcinomas. Morphologically, the malignant epithelial cells may display abnormal mitotic figures, anaplasia, and necrosis. Carcinomas are graded by the degree of cellular differentiation as well, moderately, or poorly differentiated. Carcinomas invade the surrounding tissues and tend to metastasize to other anatomic sites. Lung carcinoma, skin carcinoma, breast carcinoma, colon carcinoma, and prostate carcinoma are the most frequently seen carcinomas. 
Carcinomas most frequently harbor alterations in TP53, KRAS, CDKN2A, PIK3CA, and RB1 .
TP53 Mutation, TP53 c.217-c.1178 Missense, TP53 c.142-c.212 Missense, TP53 c.1-c.137 Missense, and TP53 Missense are the most common alterations in carcinoma .
There is 1 clinical trial for carcinoma, of which 1 is open and 0 are completed or closed. Of the trial that contains carcinoma as an inclusion criterion, 1 is phase 1 (1 open).
ERBB2 is the most frequent gene inclusion criterion for carcinoma clinical trials .
Significant Genes in Carcinoma
2. The AACR Project GENIE Consortium. AACR Project GENIE: powering precision medicine through an international consortium. Cancer Discovery. 2017;7(8):818-831. Dataset Version 4. This dataset does not represent the totality of the genetic landscape; see paper for more information.