NCI Definition: A malignant tumor arising from epithelial cells. Carcinomas that arise from glandular epithelium are called adenocarcinomas, those that arise from squamous epithelium are called squamous cell carcinomas, and those that arise from transitional epithelium are called transitional cell carcinomas. Morphologically, the malignant epithelial cells may display abnormal mitotic figures, anaplasia, and necrosis. Carcinomas are graded by the degree of cellular differentiation as well, moderately, or poorly differentiated. Carcinomas invade the surrounding tissues and tend to metastasize to other anatomic sites. Lung carcinoma, skin carcinoma, breast carcinoma, colon carcinoma, and prostate carcinoma are the most frequently seen carcinomas. [1]

Carcinomas most frequently harbor alterations in TP53, KRAS, CDKN2A, PIK3CA, and RB1 [2].

Most Commonly Altered Genes in Carcinoma

TP53 Mutation, TP53 c.217-c.1178 Missense, TP53 c.142-c.212 Missense, TP53 c.1-c.137 Missense, and TP53 Missense are the most common alterations in carcinoma [2].

Top Alterations in Carcinoma

Significant Genes in Carcinoma


Disease Details

Epithelioma Malignant, Epithelial Carcinoma, CARCINOMA, MALIGNANT, Malignant Epithelial Neoplasm, Carcinoma, NOS, Malignant Epithelial Tumor, Malignant Epithelioma
Cell Type Cancer
Papillary Carcinoma, Ovarian Carcinoma, Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma, Pleomorphic Carcinoma, Metaplastic Carcinoma, Sarcomatoid Carcinoma, Granular Cell Carcinoma, Malignant Myoepithelioma, Digestive System Carcinoma, Kidney Carcinoma, Large Cell Carcinoma, Undifferentiated Carcinoma, Vulvar Carcinoma, Vulvar/Vaginal Carcinoma, Renal Carcinoma, In Situ Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma, Cervix Carcinoma, Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma, NOS, Retroperitoneal Carcinoma, Adenocarcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Carcinoma In Situ, Transitional Cell Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma, Adenosquamous Carcinoma, Acinar Cell Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, and Lipid-Rich Carcinoma


1. National Cancer Institute. NCI Thesaurus Version 18.11d. https://ncit.nci.nih.gov/ncitbrowser/ [2018-08-28]. [2018-09-21].

2. The AACR Project GENIE Consortium. AACR Project GENIE: powering precision medicine through an international consortium. Cancer Discovery. 2017;7(8):818-831. Dataset Version 4. This dataset does not represent the totality of the genetic landscape; see paper for more information.

3. All assertions and clinical trial landscape data are curated from primary sources. You can read more about the curation process here.