Associated Genetic Biomarkers
NCI Definition: A malignant tumor arising from epithelial cells. Carcinomas that arise from glandular epithelium are called adenocarcinomas, those that arise from squamous epithelium are called squamous cell carcinomas, and those that arise from transitional epithelium are called transitional cell carcinomas. Morphologically, the malignant epithelial cells may display abnormal mitotic figures, anaplasia, and necrosis. Carcinomas are graded by the degree of cellular differentiation as well, moderately, or poorly differentiated. Carcinomas invade the surrounding tissues and tend to metastasize to other anatomic sites. Lung carcinoma, skin carcinoma, breast carcinoma, colon carcinoma, and prostate carcinoma are the most frequently seen carcinomas. 
Carcinomas most frequently harbor alterations in TP53, KRAS, PIK3CA, APC, and CDKN2A .
TP53 Mutation, TP53 Missense, TP53 c.217-c.1178 Missense, KRAS Mutation, and KRAS Exon 2 Mutation are the most common alterations in carcinoma .
There are 13 clinical trials for carcinoma, of which 9 are open and 4 are completed or closed. Of the trials that contain carcinoma as an inclusion criterion, 7 are phase 1 (5 open), 5 are phase 1/phase 2 (4 open), and 1 is phase 2 (0 open).
Deficient, MLH1, and MSH2 are the most frequent gene inclusion criteria for carcinoma clinical trials .
Abn401, avid100, and cfi-400945 are the most common interventions in carcinoma clinical trials.
Significant Genes in Carcinoma
2. The AACR Project GENIE Consortium. AACR Project GENIE: powering precision medicine through an international consortium. Cancer Discovery. 2017;7(8):818-831. Dataset Version 8. This dataset does not represent the totality of the genetic landscape; see paper for more information.