Associated Genetic Biomarkers
NCI Definition: An adenocarcinoma arising from the rectum. It is more frequently seen in populations with a Western type diet and in patients with a history of chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Signs and symptoms include intestinal bleeding, anemia, and change in bowel habits. According to the degree of cellular differentiation, rectal adenocarcinomas are divided into well, moderately, and poorly differentiated. Histologic variants include mucinous adenocarcinoma, signet ring cell carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, serrated adenocarcinoma, cribriform comedo-type adenocarcinoma, and micropapillary adenocarcinoma. 
Rectal adenocarcinomas most frequently harbor alterations in TP53, APC, KRAS, FBXW7, and SMAD4 .
APC Mutation, TP53 Mutation, TP53 c.217-c.1178 Missense, TP53 Missense, and KRAS Mutation are the most common alterations in rectal adenocarcinoma .
There are 22 clinical trials for rectal adenocarcinoma, of which 21 are open and 1 is completed or closed. Of the trials that contain rectal adenocarcinoma as an inclusion criterion, 1 is early phase 1 (1 open), 5 are phase 1 (4 open), 2 are phase 1/phase 2 (2 open), and 14 are phase 2 (14 open).
Deficient, MSI-High, and MLH1 are the most frequent gene inclusion criteria for rectal adenocarcinoma clinical trials .
Radiation therapy, capecitabine, and oxaliplatin are the most common interventions in rectal adenocarcinoma clinical trials.
Significant Genes in Rectal Adenocarcinoma
PIK3CA is altered in 13.12% of rectal adenocarcinoma patients .
PIK3CA is an inclusion eligibility criterion in 1 clinical trial for rectal adenocarcinoma, of which 1 is open and 0 are closed. Of the trial that contains PIK3CA status and rectal adenocarcinoma as inclusion criteria, 1 is phase 1/phase 2 (1 open) .
UGT1A1 is an inclusion eligibility criterion in 2 clinical trials for rectal adenocarcinoma, of which 2 are open and 0 are closed. Of the trials that contain UGT1A1 status and rectal adenocarcinoma as inclusion criteria, 2 are phase 2 (2 open) .
2. The AACR Project GENIE Consortium. AACR Project GENIE: powering precision medicine through an international consortium. Cancer Discovery. 2017;7(8):818-831. Dataset Version 8. This dataset does not represent the totality of the genetic landscape; see paper for more information.