Associated Genetic Biomarkers
NCI Definition: A malignant epithelial neoplasm that arises from the rectum and invades through the muscularis mucosa into the submucosa. The vast majority are adenocarcinomas. 
Rectal carcinomas most frequently harbor alterations in TP53, APC, KRAS, FBXW7, and SMAD4 .
APC Mutation, TP53 Mutation, TP53 c.217-c.1178 Missense, TP53 Missense, and KRAS Mutation are the most common alterations in rectal carcinoma .
There are 8 clinical trials for rectal carcinoma, of which 7 are open and 1 is completed or closed. Of the trials that contain rectal carcinoma as an inclusion criterion, 5 are phase 1 (4 open), 1 is phase 1/phase 2 (1 open), 1 is phase 3 (1 open), and 1 is no phase specified (1 open).
PIK3CA, PIK3R1, and PTEN are the most frequent gene inclusion criteria for rectal carcinoma clinical trials .
Capecitabine, radiation therapy, and capox regimen are the most common interventions in rectal carcinoma clinical trials.
Significant Genes in Rectal Carcinoma
2. The AACR Project GENIE Consortium. AACR Project GENIE: powering precision medicine through an international consortium. Cancer Discovery. 2017;7(8):818-831. Dataset Version 8. This dataset does not represent the totality of the genetic landscape; see paper for more information.