Associated Genetic Biomarkers
Associated Diseases
Associated Pathways


Location [1]
Kinase fusions, Receptor tyrosine kinase/growth factor signaling
Protein [2]
Extracellular cell-membrane anchored RET cadherin 120 kDa fragment
Synonyms [1]

The RET gene (ret proto-oncogene), encodes the proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase receptor Ret, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK). Activating point mutations in RET can give rise to the hereditary cancer syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 (MEN2; PMID: 11061555). Activating somatic point mutations in RET are associated with sporadic medullary thyroid cancer (PMID: 16946010; PMID: 11061555). Oncogenic kinase fusions involving the RET gene are found in non-small cell lung cancers (PMID: 22395697).


RET is altered in 2.61% of all cancers with lung adenocarcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma, thyroid gland medullary carcinoma, cutaneous melanoma, and melanoma having the greatest prevalence of alterations [3].

RET GENIE Cases - Top Diseases

The most common alterations in RET are RET Mutation (2.05%), RET Fusion (0.36%), RET Loss (0.33%), RET Codon 918 Missense (0.11%), and RET M918T (0.11%) [3].

RET GENIE Cases - Top Alterations

Biomarker-Directed Therapies

Significance of RET in Diseases

Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma +

Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma +

Thyroid Gland Carcinoma +

Malignant Solid Tumor +

Melanoma +

Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma +

Colorectal Carcinoma +

Non-Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma +

Pancreatic Carcinoma +

Renal Cell Carcinoma +

Breast Carcinoma +

Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma +

Endometrial Carcinoma +

Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma +

Bladder Carcinoma +

Urothelial Carcinoma +

Lung Carcinoma +

Adenocarcinoma Of The Gastroesophageal Junction +

Head And Neck Carcinoma +

Ovarian Carcinoma +

Hepatocellular Carcinoma +

Lymphoma +

Prostate Carcinoma +

Soft Tissue Sarcoma +

Multiple Myeloma +

Neuroendocrine Carcinoma +

Malignant Laryngeal Neoplasm +

Adrenal Gland Pheochromocytoma +

Malignant Uterine Neoplasm +

Gastric Adenocarcinoma +

Gastric Carcinoma +

Oropharyngeal Carcinoma +

Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma +

Esophageal Carcinoma +

Lip And Oral Cavity Carcinoma +

Lung Adenocarcinoma +

Cancer +

Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma +

Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma +

Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma +

Bile Duct Carcinoma +

Hepatobiliary Neoplasm +

Malignant Hepatobiliary Neoplasm +

High Grade Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma +

Gallbladder Carcinoma +

Malignant Central Nervous System Neoplasm +

Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma +

Wilms Tumor +

Cervical Carcinoma +

Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma +

Ewing Sarcoma +

Malignant Salivary Gland Neoplasm +

Rhabdomyosarcoma +

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma +

B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma +

Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor +

Osteosarcoma +

Mesothelioma +

Acute Myeloid Leukemia +

Leukemia +

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia +

Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma +

Bronchogenic Carcinoma +

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia +

Clear Cell Sarcoma Of Soft Tissue +

Hepatoblastoma +

Histiocytosis +

Nasal Cavity And Paranasal Sinus Carcinoma +

Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma +


1. Hart R and Prlic A. Universal Transcript Archive Repository. Version uta_20180821. San Francisco CA: Github;2015.

2. The UniProt Consortium. UniProt: a worldwide hub of protein knowledge. Nucleic Acids Research. 2019;47:D506-D515.

3. The AACR Project GENIE Consortium. AACR Project GENIE: powering precision medicine through an international consortium. Cancer Discovery. 2017;7(8):818-831. Dataset Version 8. This dataset does not represent the totality of the genetic landscape; see paper for more information.

4. All assertions and clinical trial landscape data are curated from primary sources. You can read more about the curation process here.