Associated Genetic Biomarkers

Overview

NCI Definition: A malignant tumor that arises from hepatocytes. Hepatocellular carcinoma is relatively rare in the United States but very common in all African countries south of the Sahara and in Southeast Asia. Most cases are seen in patients over the age of 50 years, but this tumor can also occur in younger individuals and even in children. Hepatocellular carcinoma is more common in males than females and is associated with hepatitis B, hepatitis C, chronic alcohol abuse and cirrhosis. Serum elevation of alpha-fetoprotein occurs in a large percentage of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Grossly, hepatocellular carcinoma may present as a single mass, as multiple nodules, or as diffuse liver involvement. Microscopically, there is a wide range of differentiation from tumor to tumor (well differentiated to poorly differentiated tumors). Hepatocellular carcinomas quickly metastasize to regional lymph nodes and lung. The overall median survival of untreated liver cell carcinoma is about 4 months. The most effective treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma is complete resection of the tumor. Lately, an increasing number of tumors have been treated with liver transplantation. [1]

Hepatocellular carcinomas most frequently harbor alterations in CTNNB1, TP53, ARID1A, DNAJB1, and RECQL4 [2].

Most Commonly Altered Genes in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

CTNNB1 Mutation, TP53 Mutation, TP53 c.217-c.1178 Missense, TP53 c.142-c.212 Missense, and TP53 c.1-c.137 Missense are the most common alterations in hepatocellular carcinoma [2].

Top Alterations in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Significant Genes in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

AFF1 +

AKT1 +

AKT2 +

AKT3 +

ALK +

ARAF +

BRAF +

CBL +

CCND1 +

CRKL +

EGFR +

ELL +

ERBB2 +

FGF19 +

FGF4 +

FGFR4 +

FRS2 +

GRB2 +

HRAS +

IDH1 +

IRS2 +

KIT +

KLB +

KMT2A +

KRAS +

MAP2K1 +

MAP2K2 +

MAP2K4 +

MAP3K1 +

MAPK1 +

MET +

MLH1 +

MLH3 +

MLLT1 +

MLLT10 +

MLLT3 +

MLLT4 +

MSH2 +

MSH3 +

MSH6 +

MTOR +

NF1 +

NRAS +

PDGFRA +

PIK3CA +

PIK3CG +

PIK3R1 +

PIK3R2 +

PLCG2 +

PMS1 +

PMS2 +

PTEN +

PTPN11 +

RAF1 +

RICTOR +

RNF43 +

RPTOR +

SRC +

STAT3 +

TSC1 +

TSC2 +

Disease Details

Synonyms
Liver Cell Cancer (Hepatocellular Carcinoma), CARCINOMA, HEPATOCELLULAR, MALIGNANT, Primary Carcinoma of the Liver Cells, Carcinoma of the Liver Cells, Carcinoma of Liver Cells, Primary Carcinoma of Liver Cells, Hepatoma, Liver Cell Carcinoma, HCC
Parent(s)
Liver and Intrahepatic Bile Duct Carcinoma
Children
Aflatoxins-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Clear Cell Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Scirrhous Hepatocellular Carcinoma, and Fibrolamellar Carcinoma
OncoTree Name
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
OncoTree Code
HCC

References

1. National Cancer Institute. NCI Thesaurus Version 18.11d. https://ncit.nci.nih.gov/ncitbrowser/ [2018-08-28]. [2018-09-21].

2. The AACR Project GENIE Consortium. AACR Project GENIE: powering precision medicine through an international consortium. Cancer Discovery. 2017;7(8):818-831. Dataset Version 4. This dataset does not represent the totality of the genetic landscape; see paper for more information.

3. All assertions and clinical trial landscape data are curated from primary sources. You can read more about the curation process here.