Associated Genetic Biomarkers
Associated Diseases
Associated Pathways


Location [1]
MAP kinase signaling
Protein [2]
GTPase KRas, N-terminally processed
Synonyms [1]
K-Ras, K-RAS4B, OES, RALD, NS3, 'C-K-RAS, KI-RAS, K-RAS2A, NS, "K-Ras 2", K-RAS4A, K-RAS2B, c-Ki-ras, KRAS1, C-K-RAS, CFC2, RASK2, KRAS2, c-Ki-ras2

KRAS (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) encodes for the GTPase KRas protein, one of three human RAS proteins. RAS proteins are small GTPases that are central mediators downstream of growth factor receptor signaling and therefore critical for cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. KRAS is implicated in the pathogenesis of several cancers.

KRAS is altered in 15.95% of all cancers with lung adenocarcinoma, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma, colorectal adenocarcinoma, and rectal adenocarcinoma having the greatest prevalence of alterations [3].

KRAS GENIE Cases - Top Diseases

The most common alterations in KRAS are KRAS Mutation (15.12%), KRAS Exon 2 Mutation (13.44%), KRAS Codon 12 Missense (11.83%), KRAS G12D (4.20%), and KRAS G12V (3.47%) [3].

KRAS GENIE Cases - Top Alterations

Biomarker-Directed Therapies

Significance of KRAS in Diseases

Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma +

Malignant Solid Tumor +

Colorectal Carcinoma +

Acute Myeloid Leukemia +

Pancreatic Carcinoma +

Colorectal Adenocarcinoma +

Melanoma +

Breast Carcinoma +

Myelodysplastic Syndromes +

Ovarian Carcinoma +

Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma +

Lung Adenocarcinoma +

Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia +

Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma +

Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma +

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma +

Endometrial Carcinoma +

Cancer +

Multiple Myeloma +

Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma +

Esophageal Carcinoma +

Bladder Carcinoma +

Hepatocellular Carcinoma +

Colon Carcinoma +

Non-Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma +

Cholangiocarcinoma +

Gastric Carcinoma +

Thyroid Gland Carcinoma +

Glioma +

Renal Cell Carcinoma +

Glioblastoma +

Prostate Carcinoma +

Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor +

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia +

Neurofibromatosis Type 1 +

Ampulla Of Vater Carcinoma +

Low Grade Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma +

Adenocarcinoma Of The Gastroesophageal Junction +

Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia +

Histiocytic And Dendritic Cell Neoplasm +

Urothelial Carcinoma +

Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma +

Small Cell Lung Carcinoma +

Low Grade Glioma +

Lymphoma +

Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia +

Therapy-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia +

Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma +

Cutaneous Melanoma +

Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma +

Head And Neck Carcinoma +

Myelodysplastic Syndrome With Excess Blasts-2 +

Malignant Small Intestinal Neoplasm +

Malignant Intestinal Neoplasm +

Malignant Colorectal Neoplasm +

Rectal Carcinoma +

Lung Carcinoma +

Adenocarcinoma +

Malignant Testicular Neoplasm +

Adenosquamous Lung Carcinoma +

Biliary Tract Carcinoma +

Germ Cell Tumor +

Malignant Female Reproductive System Neoplasm +

Malignant Gastric Neoplasm +

Gastric Adenocarcinoma +

Malignant Esophagogastric Neoplasm +

Malignant Ovarian Epithelial Tumor +

Gallbladder Carcinoma +

Mucosal Melanoma +

Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor +

Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma +

Pilocytic Astrocytoma +

Myeloid Neoplasm +

High Grade Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma +

Anaplastic Astrocytoma +

Therapy-Related Myelodysplastic Syndrome +

Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma +

Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma +

Squamous Cell Carcinoma +

Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts +

Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma +

Ganglioglioma +

Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma +

Thymic Carcinoma +

Mantle Cell Lymphoma +

Neuroblastoma +

Sarcoma +

Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma +

Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma +

Soft Tissue Sarcoma +

Breast Adenocarcinoma +

Diffuse Glioma +

Neuronal And Mixed Neuronal-Glial Tumors +

Astrocytic Tumor +

Kidney Carcinoma +

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia +

Pleural Mesothelioma +

Mesothelioma +

Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma +

Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome +

Anal Canal Squamous Cell Carcinoma +

B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia +

Chordoma +

Double-Hit Lymphoma +

Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumor +

Gangliocytoma +

Low-Grade Neuroepithelial Tumor, NOS +

Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable +

Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma +

Peritoneal Mesothelioma +

Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma +

Primary Peritoneal Low Grade Serous Adenocarcinoma +

Rhabdoid Tumor +

Schwannoma +

T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia +

Uveal Melanoma +


1. Hart R and Prlic A. Universal Transcript Archive Repository. Version uta_20180821. San Francisco CA: Github;2015.

2. The UniProt Consortium. UniProt: a worldwide hub of protein knowledge. Nucleic Acids Research. 2019;47:D506-D515.

3. The AACR Project GENIE Consortium. AACR Project GENIE: powering precision medicine through an international consortium. Cancer Discovery. 2017;7(8):818-831. Dataset Version 8. This dataset does not represent the totality of the genetic landscape; see paper for more information.

4. All assertions and clinical trial landscape data are curated from primary sources. You can read more about the curation process here.